Summary: 17 Migration & Citizenship Tentamen

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  • 1 Introduction and overview; Origin countries

  • 1.1 Theories of migration

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  • Text: Important migration theories

    1. Migration is an intrinsic part of broader processes of development, social transformation and globalization. Development processes tend to drive migration by increasing capabilities and aspiration to move.
    2. Migration processes have internal dynamics based on social networks and other contextual feedback mechanisms*, which can facilitate more migration by defying and circumvent government restriction, making migration notoriously difficult for governments to control.
    3. Migrants can behave like gatekeepers instead of bridgeheads and networks decline because sending and receiving states (macro) continue to play a role in initiating and shaping movements.
  • Text: Receiving-country bias

    The tendency of migration studies to focus on the consequences of immigration in wealthy, migrant-receiving societies, and to ignore the causes and consequences of migration in origin countries.
  • 2 Selection at the border

  • 2.1.1 Superdiversity

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  • The potentials of the superdiversity concept

    Positieve noot van J.W.
    • It goes beyond an one-sided focus on ethnicity;
    • Politically, it is an important perspective after the demise of multiculturalism: diversity as normalcy as wishful thinking;
    • It is inspiring for marginalized groups and individuals
    • It acknowledges that not all differences are necessarily problematic forms of inequality;
    • It can help ‘the state’ to more adequately deal with new immigrant populations;
    • But how does the mainstream perceive the new immigrants? Nativism.  
  • 2.2 Civic integration requirements

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  • Text: Civic Integration Policy Index (CIVIX)

    Measures civic requirements both within and across countries with over-time and cross-national data. The index is then used to assess how new requirements complement or challenge existing citizenship policy.
    New citizenship typology* reflecting the intersection of 
    civic integration requirements + existing citizenship policy,  = producing four categories of citizenship strategy:
      • prohibitive,
      • conditional,
      • insular and
      • enabling.
    How do states define membership and belonging?
  • Conditional citizenship (:NL) = (assumption / perception)

    Obligatory civic integration courses (exams) is to limit and control the inflow and settlements of migrants.
    • they are not meant to enable integration, not meant to help people integrate. It is designed to keep certain "hopeless" people out.
    • These new policies have been informed by all kind of assumptions regarding the migrants, and these assumptions are very much related to the 3) forms of exclusion which have a native core.
  • 2.3 Pre-departure integration strategies

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  • Pre-departure integration strategies and possible objections

    Focusses on new 'selection' policies, based on expectations of integration, among those countries the Dutch have said: before people even come to the NL, they should learn the language and more things about the NL already in the country of departure. Very new policy: not helping to integrate.
    Groenendijk’s broad overview:
    • Constitutional protection of family life;
    • Direct and indirect discrimination of certain countries;
    • Does it really help for better integration or to select ‘desirable’ migrants?
    • What are the reasons to implement these measures?
  • Text: 3 aspects of pre-departure immigration strategies

    New integration policies where thought of as a way to control immigration rather than to integrate existing immigrants.

    1. Political debate
      • Selecting family members of migrants on the basis of their educational level.
    2. Legal constraints of EU and international law
      • Whether a state's primary goal is to improve integration outcomes for all immigrants or to "select" desirable immigrants and restrict others.
    3. Effects
      • Counterproductive: language training is far more efficient and effective when immigrants have "on-the-ground" opportunities. Pass-rate argument.
  • 2.5 Out-of-procedure asylum seekers in NL

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  • Perceptions of migrants: who is (not) welcome?

    • Kalir: it produces a group of undocumented migrants who can’t claim any rights. System produces undocumented people in our society.
  • 3 Immigration & Citizenship regimes

  • 3.1 Immigrants' social rights

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  • Text: Immigrants' social rights* composed by (3)

    1. The type of welfare regime has an impact on immigrants’ social rights, it utilizes (1) Esping-Andersen’s welfare regime typology but must be complemented by
    2. The immigration policy regime and
    3. Entry categories associated with the form of immigration

    The paper examines the social rights of immigrants in three countries generally regarded as exemplars of the welfare regime types:
    • the United States, representing the liberal regime;
    • Germany, the conservative corporatist regime;
    • Sweden, the social democratic regime.
  • Different forms of nationality acquisition

    • Jus Soli: Rights are based on country of birth.
      • If you are born in the US: you have citizenship.
    • Jus Sanguinis: Rights are based on lineage.
      • Bloodline principle: citizenship based on where your parents where born (born in Scotland=no citizenship).
    • Jus domicili: Rights based on residence
      • If you live/born here, you build up rights by living there and after a certain time you can apply for nationality acquisition.

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