Summary: A Concise Introduction To Ethics | 9780190058173 | Russ Shafer Landau

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  • 1 Femenist Ethics and the Ethics of Care

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  • What are the two shortchanges, which Philosophers made about the lives of women?

    The first is to mak false and damaging claims about them.

    Second, is to ignore female experiences and perspectives.
    Both have been the norm in ethical thinking for centuries.
    Feminist ethics seeks to remedy both of these flaws. 
  • 1.1 Conventional an Critical Morality

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  • What is the definition of: Conventional Morality

    The system of widely accepted rules and principles (such as right and wrong), created by and for human beings, that members of a culture or society use to gevern their own lives and to asses the actions and the motivations of others.
  • 1.4 Morality and Other Normative Systems

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  • What is a normative system made up from?

    A normative system is made up of a set of norms. Standards for how we ought to behave and rules that we should not break
  • What are four of the most important normative systems?

    Those that govern the law, etiquette, self-interest and tradition.
  • 1.5 Morality and Religion

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  • Devine Command Theory

    An act is morally required just because it is commanded by God, and immoral just because God forbids it.
  • Why is it problematic to base morality on religion?

    A moral decision based on religion will be a command, a handed down assertion, a view propped up by circularity rather than consistency. Whether god or the Bible, you are not making a proper moral decision if someone else is telling you what to do: it is not a decision, it is a command being obeyed. To be able to reason morally, you must be able to engage freely.
  • 1.6 Conclusions

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  • What can help us focus on our target?

    Understanding the three branches of moral philosophy; value theory, normative ethics and metaethics.
  • There are many people that look for moral guidance in religion, but:

    On basis of the Divine Command Theory there are problems doing so. There are several hurdles that theists need to overcome in order to assure themselves that such reliance is appropriate.
  • 2 Moral Reasoning

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  • Which two things together are called an argument in moral reasoning?

    1. A set of reasons (also called premises)
    2. A conclusion that these reasons are meant to support
  • Our moral thinking should have the following two complementary goals:

    1. Getting it right
    2. Being able to back up our views with flawless reasoning
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