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Summary Abnormal Psychology

Course
- Abnormal Psychology
- N/A
- 2015 - 2016
- DU
- Psychology
332 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Abnormal Psychology

  • What is abnormal psychology? Historical views

  • What is abnormal psychology?
    Branch of psychology, studies abnormal patterns of behaviour, thoughts and emotions
  • What was the prehistoric view of abnormality and the treatment to "cure" abnormal behaviour?
    Prehistoric view:
    • Internal event result from action of magical beings
    • Victory of evil sprits / possessed by demons


    Method:Trephination to release the evil spirit (i.e. drilling a hole in the brain)
  • What was the Greek and Roman view of abnormality?
    Abnormal behaviour (e.g. mania, melancholia) is a disease; internal physiological problems
    ---> Medical Model: Conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as (biological) disease that have symptoms, causes and possible cures
    i.e. they understood that abnormal behaviours were due to physiological backgrounds & biological causes, and that the disorder could be treated with bioligical/ physiological cure - NOT possessed by devils

    ---> They thought an imbalance of 4 essential fluids/humours (black biles, yellow bile, blood and phlegm) caused abnormal behaviour
  • What was happening in Europe in the Middle Ages (about A.D. 500 to A.D. 1500)?
    • Demonology returns in Europe
    • Growing distrust of science
    • Religious beliefs dominated all aspects of life
    • Satan’s influence, God’s punishment, Exorcism
    • Time of great stress + anxiety (plague/black death)
    ---> stress is a key factor in the development of mental disorders
    • Outbreaks of mass madness, hallucinations, delusions, Saint Vitus’ dance/Chorea Sydenham     
  • What was happening in Europe by the 13th century (think witches...)?
    By 13thC, witch trials were held. These looked at orientation, memory, intellect, daily life + habits. 

    • Witch prickers went from town to town sticking pins into the accused. No response was considered evidence of madness.
    • Last execution of a witch was in Switzerland 1782
     
    ---> if someone (esp. women showed certain disorders, they were accused of being possessed = burned at the stake/drowned
  • What happened during the renaissance to accommodate those who showed abnormal behaviour?
    Hospitals/monasteries were converted into asylums (i.e. storage places for the insane)
    - locked patients away from society
    - didn't particularly help patients
    ---> Once the asylums started to overflow, they became virtual prisons. Patients were held in filthy conditions and treated with unspeakable cruelty. 
  • Who was the first physician to specialize in mental illness?
    Johann Weyer (1515-1588) (during the renaissance)
  • In the 19th century, what 2 people tried to bring about reform and moral treatment?
    • Phillippe Pinel (1745-1826)
    Chief physician in La Bicêtre, Paris. He thought that “Patients’ illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings”

    • Dorothea Dix
    ---> 1841 Dorothea Dix went into institutions. 
    ---> She was shocked + repulsed. 
    ---> She travelled through Massachusetts jails + poorhouses. 
    ---> She presented her findings + demanded more state-funded hospitals. 
    ---> However, several factors led to a reversal of the moral treatment movement: money shortages, recovery rates declined, prejudice against people with mental disorders.
  • In the early 20th century, what were 2 opposing perspectives?
    1. Somatogenic Perspective
    2. Psychogenic Perspective
  • What is the Somatogenic Perspective?

    ---> Abnormal behaviour has physical causes


    1. Emil Kraepelin (1883): Physical factors, such as fatigue, are responsible for mental dysfunction. First modern system for classifying abnormal behaviour.
    2. New biological discoveries (syphilis and paresis/weakness in voluntary movements) - people started to understand that abnormal movements were due to a physical problem, not from being possessed. 


    Treatment: tooth extraction, tonsillectomy, hydrotherapy, lobotomy, eugenic sterilization
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