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Summary AEW-31306 Water Quality Reader

- Bart Koelmans, et al
ISBN-13 9990002023026
71 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - AEW-31306 Water Quality Reader Author: Bart Koelmans, Jeroen de Klein Merel Kooi ISBN: 9990002023026

  • 1 Theme 1: Aquatic chemistry

  • 1.1 Introduction

  • In which environmental setting is aquatic chemistry important?
    Lakes, rivers, flood plains, groundwater, soil/water/air systems, estuaries, oceans, sediments, water treatment, aerosols and hydrosols and rain. They form the hydrosphere!
  • Which subcategories does hydrology have?
    Limnology: biological, chemical and physical properties of freshwater
    Oceanography: science of the ocean and its chemical and physical characteristics
    Water Quality: relates to the user functions of water such as shipping, recreation, fisheries, ecological functions or drinking water.
  • What are the three main types of surface water?
    Streams, lakes and reservoirs
  • What are the three types of lakes?
    Oligotrophic: deep, generally clear, deficient in nutrients, and without much biological activity.
    Eutrophic: more nutrients, support more life, and are more turbid
    Dystrophic: shallow, clogged with plant life, and normally contain coloured water with a low pH.
  • 1.2 Concentration scales

  • What are the different concentration units?
    Molarity, molality, mole fraction, ionic strength, salinity and chlorinity. Molality is useful when one does not want to have to worry about changes in colume that might occur due to changes in temperature, pressure and/or composition.
  • 1.3 Acids and bases in natural water; alkalinity, pH and buffer capacity

  • What is the exogenic cycle?
    Process by which mountains are slowly dissolved and transported to the bottom of the oceans, because of a gigantic acid-base reaction in flowing water.
  • 1.3.2 Carbonate equilibria and alkalinity

  • Carbonate systems may be handled as ... And ... Systems
    Carbonate systems may be handled as open or closed systems. 
    Open means exchange of aqueous CO2 with the atmosphere is possible, and considered equilibrium with the atmosphere.
  • What makes a carbonate system open or closed?

    Whether a carbonate system is open or closed, depends on the kinetics of CO2 transfer across the air/water surface and the time scales (days) we are interested in.
  • What are fast and long processes of carbonate equilibria and how can they be studied?
    Fast processes take place on a time scale of hour or less can be modelled with equilibirum aqueous systems that have fixed total carbonate concentration.
    Long processes take place on average annual composition of surface waters, where the approximation of equilibrium between aqueous and atmospheric CO2 is allowed.
  • How can alkalinity be estimated in freshwaters?
    With alk = [HCO3-]+ 2[CO32-] + [OH-] - [H+]
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