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Summary Applied Animal Ecology

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A snapshot of the summary - Applied animal ecology

  • 1 Lecture 1

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  • How to increase or decerase population size?
    - What causes the increase or decrease?
    - Tackle the main factor  
  • Conceptual model population
    - population with individuals with own story
    - population: birth + death - individual: gain + loss 
    - population level -> assumption = no immigration or emigration 
    - no net rate: could be that birth and death are both low, or both very high and everything in between
    - Increase can be achieved in different situations
    - What is the key factor that allows for increase/decrease of the population?
  • Concenptual model individual
    - talk about gain and loss (instead of birth and death)
    - Mouth to anus: What do you eat and what do you lose?  
    - Anabolic (growth) or catabolic (lose)
    - Animal as reservoir:
    •   if not replenish: no more intake? > What would happen to the animal? > How long would it survive?
    • If one element is covered > next component is the problem
  • 2 Lecture 2+3

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  • Dispersion (a pattern)
    - Random
    - Clumped (matter of chance where you find the groups)
    - Regular
    - Regular clumped (territorial)
  • Geometric growth model
    - Nt+1 + Nt + R*Nt
    = R=Geometric rate of increase

    -> Nt+1 =  λ*Nt
    =  λ= finite rate of increase   
    -> Nt = N0 λ  t
  • Exponential growth model
    - Nt= No*e^rt
    ->  λ=e^r -> r-ln( λ)
    - Nt = population size at time
    - No= start populations size
    - E^r = exponential rate of increase
    - t= time 

    - more continuous
    - birth and death rate are constant
    -  When individuals are born they are also gonna reproduce themselves.
  • What is the ecological meaning of r
    - The growth rate is the combination of the fecundity rate and the mortality rate
    - r=difference birth - death = growth rate
  • Carrying capacity K
    - When birth (b) = death (d)
    - When the lines cross each other
    - What happens when you reach K? 
    • interference competition (directly conflicting with each other)
    • change sex ratio's (more females are born -> animals are weak -> it's better to produce a weak female offspring than a weak male offspring)   
    • More diseases
    • More stress 
  • Growth rate stable environments
    - The concept of carrying capacity has many assumptions
    - not constrained is the least likely to happen
  • Change of population size
    - dN/dt = r (1-(n/K)*N
    - The bigger the growth rate, the more uncontrollable and chaotic the fluctuation is

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