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A snapshot of the summary  Applied animal ecology

1 Lecture 1
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How to increase or decerase population size? What causes the increase or decrease?
 Tackle the main factor 
Conceptual model population population with individuals with own story
 population:birth + death  individual: gain + loss
 population level > assumption = no immigration or emigration
 no net rate: could be that birth and death are both low, or both very high and everything in between
 Increase can be achieved in different situations
 What is the key factor that allows for increase/decrease of the population? 
Concenptual model individual talk about gain and loss (instead of birth and death)
 Mouth to anus: What do you eat and what do you lose?
 Anabolic (growth) or catabolic (lose)
 Animal as reservoir: if not replenish: no more intake? > What would happen to the animal? > How long would it survive?
 If one element is covered > next component is the problem

2 Lecture 2+3
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Dispersion (a pattern)  Random
Clumped (matter of chance where you find the groups)
 Regular
 Regular clumped (territorial ) 
Geometric growth model Nt+1 + Nt + R*Nt
= R=Geometric rate of increase
> Nt+1 = λ*Nt
= λ= finite rate of increase
> Nt = N0 λ t 
Exponential growth model Nt= No*e^rt
> λ=e^r > rln( λ)
 Nt = population size at time
 No= start populations size
 E^r = exponential rate of increase
 t= time
 more continuous
 birth and death rate are constant
 When individuals are born they are also gonna reproduce themselves. 
What is the ecological meaning of r The growth rate is the combination of the fecundity rate and the mortality rate
 r=difference birth  death = growth rate 
Carrying capacity K When
birth (b) = death (d)
 When the linescross each other
 What happens when you reach K? interference competition (directly conflicting with each other)
 change sex ratio's (more females are born > animals are weak > it's better to produce a weak female offspring than a weak male offspring)
 More diseases
 More stress

Growth rate stable environments The concept of carrying capacity has many
assumptions
 not constrained is the least likely to happen 
Change of population size dN/dt = r (1(n/K)*N
 The bigger the growth rate, the moreuncontrollable andchaotic thefluctuation is
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