 # Summary Applied animal ecology

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Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven. • ## 1 Lecture 1

• How to increase or decerase population size?
- What causes the increase or decrease?
- Tackle the main factor
• Conceptual model population
- population with individuals with own story
- population: birth + death - individual: gain + loss
- population level -> assumption = no immigration or emigration
- no net rate: could be that birth and death are both low, or both very high and everything in between
- Increase can be achieved in different situations
- What is the key factor that allows for increase/decrease of the population?
• Concenptual model individual
- Mouth to anus: What do you eat and what do you lose?
- Anabolic (growth) or catabolic (lose)
- Animal as reservoir:
•   if not replenish: no more intake? > What would happen to the animal? > How long would it survive?
• If one element is covered > next component is the problem
• ## 2 Lecture 2+3

• Dispersion (a pattern)
- Random
- Clumped (matter of chance where you find the groups)
- Regular
- Regular clumped (territorial)
• Geometric growth model
- Nt+1 + Nt + R*Nt
= R=Geometric rate of increase

-> Nt+1 =  λ*Nt
=  λ= finite rate of increase
-> Nt = N0 λ  t
• Exponential growth model
- Nt= No*e^rt
->  λ=e^r -> r-ln( λ)
- Nt = population size at time
- No= start populations size
- E^r = exponential rate of increase
- t= time

- more continuous
- birth and death rate are constant
-  When individuals are born they are also gonna reproduce themselves.
• What is the ecological meaning of r
- The growth rate is the combination of the fecundity rate and the mortality rate
- r=difference birth - death = growth rate
• Carrying capacity K
- When birth (b) = death (d)
- When the lines cross each other
- What happens when you reach K?
• interference competition (directly conflicting with each other)
• change sex ratio's (more females are born -> animals are weak -> it's better to produce a weak female offspring than a weak male offspring)
• More diseases
• More stress
• Growth rate stable environments
- The concept of carrying capacity has many assumptions
- not constrained is the least likely to happen
• Change of population size
- dN/dt = r (1-(n/K)*N
- The bigger the growth rate, the more uncontrollable and chaotic the fluctuation is