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A snapshot of the summary - Artikelen experimental immunology
1 Cancer-related inflammation
What are the 7 effects of inflammation on tumor?
- Aids proliferation
- Aids survival malignant cells
- Promotes angiogenisis
- Promotes metastasis
- Subverts (ondermijnt) adaptive immune responses
- Alters responses to hormones
- Alters responses to chemotherapeutic agents
What are the 2 orders in which inflammation and tumors occur?
- Sometimes there is inflammation before a malignant change ocurs. Chronical inflammation can lead to cancer.
- In other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that
promotes the development of tumours
What is the percentage of deaths by underlying infections and inflammatory responses, to all deaths from cancer worldwide?
Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic inflammation predisposes individuals to various types of cancer. It is estimated that underlying infections and inflammatory responses are linked to 15–20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide
Name 3 triggers of chronic inflammation that increase the risk of developing cancer, with an example
- microbial infections (infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer and gastric mucosal lymphoma)
- autoimmune diseases (inflammatory bowel disease is associated with colon cancer)
- inflammatory conditions of unknown origin (prostatitis is associated with prostate cancer
What does (also) indicate that cancer and inflammation are linked?
treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents decreases the incidence of several tumour types, and the mortality that results from several tumour types
What are the 4 hallmarks of cancer-related inflammation?
- the presence of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators (chemokines, cytokines and prostaglandins) in tumour tissues
- tissue remodelling similar to that seen in chronic inflammatory responses
- angiogenesis similar to that seen in chronic inflammatory responses
- tissue repai
Name the 2 pathways in the connection between inflammation and cancer
- intrinsic pathway, driven by genetic alternations that cause inflammation and neoplasia (oncogenes)
- extrinsic pathway, driven by inflammatory conditions that increase cancer risk (inflammatory bowel disease)
How was the intrinsic pathway discovered?
when addressing why inflammatory cells and mediators are present in the microenvironment of most, if not all, tumours and therefore are present in cases for which there is no .epidemiological basis for inflammation
2 Dynamic imaging of the immune system: progress, pitfalls and promise
What is the main advantage of multi-photon microscopy for immunologists?
it gives them the ability to image deep into live tissues, a capacity that depends greatly on the choice of laser system, the scanhead and the many optical components.
What can you say about the detectors of two-photon imaging?
• Usually a photomultiplier tube used without a pinhole for two-photon imaging because fluorescence radiates from a diffraction-limited focal volume and even scattered photons can contribute to a useful signal.
• Ideal detector placement is as close as possible to the back aperture of the objective; common in custom-built systems, but generally impractical on commercial systems that double as confocal microscopes.