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A snapshot of the summary - Biology
1 Breathing and Respiration
Structure of the respiratory systemLarynx- Voice box
trachea- Main air passage
bronchus- tube that leads directly to the lung
bronchioles- narrow and branching to carry air to different parts of lung
alveoli- where gaseous exchange takes place.
pleural membrane- surround lungs and prevent from rubbing against ribs.
pleural calvitiy- contains lubricating fluid
ribs- protect hearts and lungs
intercostal muscle- contract to raise and lower ribs during breathing
diaphragm- muscle raises and lowers to help air move in and out lungs
Five properties of a good respiratory system?Have a large surface area- tennis court alveoli- more oxygen can pass to blood.
Be thin- alveoli walls 1 cell thick- so gasses can diffuse through.
Have a good blood supply- covered in capillaries- oxygen can easily get into blood cells.
Be moist- covered in wet sticky mucus- gases can dissolve and diffuse easily across.
Be ventilated- alveoli fill when we breathe- otherwise no oxygen would get in from outside world.
What is energy for respiration used for in plantsActive transport of minerals into the plant roots
building new materials
What is the energy from respiration used for in animals?making muscles contract
making new substances
What are the disadvantages of anaerobic respirationinefficient
What are the 5 effects of exercise on the body?You breathe faster
you breathe deeper
your heart beats faster
stroke volume increases
What is the effect on training on athletic performance?Muscles get stronger
Stroke volume increases
lung capacity increases
takes longer to switch to anaerobic respiration
Yeast anaerobic equationglucose --> co2 + ethanol + energy
What is the effect of temperature on respiration rate in yeast?As the temp increases, so does the rate of anaerobic respiration until it reaches a peak. Above this temp the rate of rest declines as respiration is an enzyme controlled reaction. As temp increases enzymes work more efficiently up to an optimum temp. Above this temp, the enzymes are denatured and resp stops.
What are the 7 adaptations of preyEyes on the side of their head (360)