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Summary Biology

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A snapshot of the summary - Biology

  • 1 Breathing and Respiration

  • Structure of the respiratory system
    Larynx- Voice box
    trachea- Main air passage
    bronchus- tube that leads directly to the lung
    bronchioles- narrow and branching to carry air to different parts of lung
    alveoli- where gaseous exchange takes place.
    pleural membrane- surround lungs and prevent from rubbing against ribs.
    pleural calvitiy- contains lubricating fluid
    ribs- protect hearts and lungs
    intercostal muscle- contract to raise and lower ribs during breathing
    diaphragm- muscle raises and lowers to help air move in and out lungs
  • Five properties of a good respiratory system?
    Have a large surface area- tennis court alveoli- more oxygen can pass to blood.
    Be thin- alveoli walls 1 cell thick- so gasses can diffuse through.
    Have a good blood supply- covered in capillaries- oxygen can easily get into blood cells.
    Be moist- covered in wet sticky mucus- gases can dissolve and diffuse easily across.
    Be ventilated- alveoli fill when we breathe- otherwise no oxygen would get in from outside world.
  • What is energy for respiration used for in plants
    Active transport of minerals into the plant roots
    growth
    reproduction
    building new materials 
  • What is the energy from respiration used for in animals?
    making muscles contract
    keeping warm
    growth
    making new substances
    active transport
  • What are the disadvantages of anaerobic respiration
    inefficient
    muscle cramps
    oxygen debt
  • What are the 5 effects of exercise on the body?
    You breathe faster 
    you breathe deeper 
    your heart beats faster 
    stroke volume increases 
    sweat
  • What is the effect on training on athletic performance?
    Muscles get stronger
    Stroke volume increases 
    lung capacity increases
    takes longer to switch to anaerobic respiration
  • Yeast anaerobic equation
    glucose --> co2 + ethanol + energy
    A.K.A Fermentation
  • What is the effect of temperature on respiration rate in yeast?
    As the temp increases, so does the rate of anaerobic respiration until it reaches a peak. Above this temp the rate of rest declines as respiration is an enzyme controlled reaction. As temp increases enzymes work more efficiently up to an optimum temp. Above this temp, the enzymes are denatured and resp stops.
  • 2 Adaptation

  • What are the 7 adaptations of prey
    Eyes on the side of their head (360)
    Acute senses
    Armour
    Speed
    Camouflage 
    Poison
    Nocturnal
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