Summary: Brain In Trouble

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Read the summary and the most important questions on brain in trouble

  • Etiology of brain disorders

    This is a preview. There are 4 more flashcards available for chapter 01/10/2015
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  • What is the problem with most brain disorders?

    They are very complex, multifactorial disorders
  • What should etiological models for psychiatric diseases need to be?

    Pluralistic or multilevel
  • What is the problem with the nature vs nurture discussion?

    Dichotomy should be broken down, but the brain should be viewed as in constant interaction with environment, society and culture.
  • Why are more molecular abnormalities not more penetrant at behavorial level?

    Multiple genes complementary/redundant effects
    Risk genes are not necessary sufficient to cause mental illness
    Combination with environmental risk factors
  • What are pre/perinatal risk factors?

    Maternal stress
    Maternal nutritional deficiency
    Maternal use of tobacco

    Birth complications

    Perinatal nutritional deficiency
    Maternal separation
  • What is the circuit of the HPA axis?

    Cortisol binds to glucocorticoid receptor
    GR acts as transcription factor and can alter gene expression

    GR in hypothalamus, hypophysis and hippocampus: negative feedback loop shuts down CRF loop
  • What happens in early life stress with the HPA axis?

    life long overactive(=less GR=less negative feedback to shut system down)
  • how does parentl care influence the activity of the neural systems that regulate stress reactivity and cognition in offspring?

    Through epigenetic regulation of gene expression
  • Addiction is a brain disease

    This is a preview. There are 22 more flashcards available for chapter 02/10/2015
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  • What are key characteristics of drug addiction?

    A chronic disease process that develops into a relatively rigid pattern of behavior.

    Compulsive use of a substance
    High probability of relapse
    Difficulty stopping
  • What is the most harmful drug in our society? What was a substantial contributor to compiling the list?

    Drug specific mortality and economic cost

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