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Summary brain in trouble

Course
- brain in trouble
- hylke
- 2015 - 2016
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- Bewegingswetenschappen
160 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - brain in trouble

  • Etiology of brain disorders

  • What is the problem with most brain disorders?
    They are very complex, multifactorial disorders
  • What should etiological models for psychiatric diseases need to be?
    Pluralistic or multilevel
  • What is the problem with the nature vs nurture discussion?
    Dichotomy should be broken down, but the brain should be viewed as in constant interaction with environment, society and culture.
  • Why are more molecular abnormalities not more penetrant at behavorial level?
    Multiple genes complementary/redundant effects
    Risk genes are not necessary sufficient to cause mental illness
    Combination with environmental risk factors
  • What are pre/perinatal risk factors?
    Maternal stress
    Maternal nutritional deficiency
    Maternal use of tobacco

    Birth complications

    Perinatal nutritional deficiency
    Maternal separation
  • What is the circuit of the HPA axis?
    Cortisol binds to glucocorticoid receptor
    GR acts as transcription factor and can alter gene expression

    GR in hypothalamus, hypophysis and hippocampus: negative feedback loop shuts down CRF loop
  • What happens in early life stress with the HPA axis?
    life long overactive(=less GR=less negative feedback to shut system down)
  • how does parentl care influence the activity of the neural systems that regulate stress reactivity and cognition in offspring?
    Through epigenetic regulation of gene expression
  • Addiction is a brain disease

  • What are key characteristics of drug addiction?
    A chronic disease process that develops into a relatively rigid pattern of behavior.

    Compulsive use of a substance
    High probability of relapse
    Difficulty stopping
  • What is the most harmful drug in our society? What was a substantial contributor to compiling the list?
    Alcohol
    Drug specific mortality and economic cost
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