These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'court', 'police' and 'jury', originating from:

- James O'Driscoll
ISBN-10 0194306445 ISBN-13 9780194306447
1736 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on court, police, jury

How can the typical British policeman be described?
  • Could be found in a tourist brochure
  • Strange looking helmet
  • No gun
  • 'Bobby'
What is meant by the New Scotland Yard?
Is the well know building which is the head quaters of it’s Criminal Investigation Department.
What is a 'bobby' and what is his 'beat'?
  • A bobby is the word for a typical British policeman.
  • His 'beat' is his particular neighboorhood to patrol
In the 1960 the way people looked at the police changed, this was set in motion by the motorization. What were the results of this 1960's change?
  • Police ánd crime became motorized.
  • Individual police officers stopped being the familiar faces they once were.
  • counterculture: demonstrations of young people who saw the police as a symbol of everything they disliked.
  • Police officers got nicnames: 'fuzz', 'cops', 'pigs'
Who are the Guildford Four and the Birmingham Six
The Guildford Four and the Birmingham Six are two major miscarriages of justice where innocent people where sent to prison for crimes (IRA bombings) they did not commit. Later in time their verdicts where overturned because it had become clear police had used falsified evidence, withheld crucial information and tortured the suspects to make them confess. Cases like this have of course induced  the bad reputation of the police and the judiciary system.

miscarriages of justice: in Dutch: rechterlijke dwaling
In what sense do the police in England differ from the Dutch police?
Most police officers in the UK don’t carry guns like here in the Netherlands. Also how the British folks see the police, they know they serve for them and are not there to do you harm
What kind of court is the Magistrates’ court and who presides over it?
It's a lower court where all criminal proceedings start. Some civil cases are also being dealt with in the magistrates court. Family matters are also dealt with in this court. Cases are being heard by by a bench of three judges. There is no jury in this court.
What is the difference between this Magistrates' and a Crown Court?
Magistrates' cannot hear serious offenses. All criminal cases start in the Magistrates' court. In the Magistrates' there is no jury.
What is a Neighbourhood Watch scheme
A neighbourhood Watch scheme is a scheme founded to educate the people in crime prevention and encourage them to look out of suspicous matters in their neighbourhood. They were founded as a result of the rise in  fear of crime and the growing lack of confidence in the police.
What is the highest court of appeal in Britain and under what circumstances can you appeal to it?
The supreme court
What is the function of the judge in a crown court?
The judge decides questions of law, sums up the case to the jury and sentences or discharges the accused. If the defendant is found guilty, the judge will decide the length of the sentence.
What is the function of the jury? How does a Scottish jury differ?
Jury: a jury is made up of a group of 12 randomly chosen members of the public who must decide wether the defendant is guilty.

Scotland: A jury hears the evidence in serious criminal cases and some civil hearings. In criminal cases, the jury is made up of 15 members of the public chosen at random from the electoral register.
Also scotland has three verdicts: conviction (guilty) and two acquittal (not proven and not guilty)
What is the difference between a solicitor and a barrister?
A solicitor is a qualified legal professional who provides expert legal advice and support to clients. They work directly with their clients.

A barrister is a specialist legal adviser and represents individuals and organisations in courts and tribunals and through written legal advice . Barristers are hired by solicitors to represent a case in Court and only become involved once advocacy before a court is needed.

A sollicter deals with the public he cannot present in the higer court. (divorces, wills etc) every day things
Barrister handle the crown court, concentrate on specific laws. Work directly with clients.
Who appoints the judges, magistrates and other legal officers?
The judicial Appointments Commission. They are an independent commission that selects candidates from judicial office in courts and tribunals in England and Wales.
Explain the following terms: bail, defendant, verdict, sentence, probation.
Bail: A condition on which a person who has been charged with a crime can go free until the time of the trail. Typically, this is a sum of money guaranteed on behalf of the charged personal

Defendant: The party against whom a claim is brought in a criminal court case. (the person accused of a crime)

Verdict: The dicision of the court.

Sentence: the punishment

Probation: when you drink and drive they give you probation, if they catch you drinking and driving you’ll get your punishment.
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