Clinical Microbiology and Immunology - Antibacterial Drugs

9 important questions on Clinical Microbiology and Immunology - Antibacterial Drugs

What was the first antibacterial drug?

The first antibacterial drug was in 1909 a cure for syphilis.

What are the main principles of antimicrobial drugs?

  • Must the microorganism lyse/kill/hinder
  • Should not be easily broken down
  • Should not affect the host (selective toxicity)
  • Aiming at differences between prokaryotes/eukaryotes
  • No or delayed resistance development

What are antimicrobial synthetic compounds?

  • Growth factor analogs
  • Quinolones

What are antimicrobial natural resources?


What are the main principles of antibiotics?

  • Natural products produced by microorganisms can be used as antibiotics, in contrast with the synthetic compounds
  • Microorganisms are also fighting with each other for a place in the habitat
  • Gram-positives more sensitive than Gram-negatives, so, if both groups are sensitive: broad-spectrum antibiotic is used.
  • Both eukaryote and prokaryote microorganisms are producers.

What is an example of a semi synthetic compound?

Changed penicillin, there are multiple forms:
  • Methicillin
  • Oxacillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Carbenicillin
  • Cephalosporins

What is the target of penicillin?

Penicillin inhibits the final step in peptidoglycan synthesis: transpeptidation.

What is the mechanism of action of tetracycline?

Protein synthesis (30S inhibitor).

What are examples of new antibiotics? What do they do?

Daptomycin forms a pore in the cytoplasmic membrane, this causes leakage so the cell depolarizes.
Platensimycin inhibits lipid biosynthesis.

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