Microbial Metabolism - Respiration: Citric Acid and Glyoxylate Cycles

How many ATP molecules can be made by aerobically respiring a glucose molecule to CO2?
38 ATP molecules
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Which two major roles does the CAC play in the cell?
  1. Glucose respiration coupled to energy conservation
  2. The biosynthesis of key metabolites
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Why can't two-carbon compounds be oxidized by the citric acid cycle alone?
The citric acid cycle can continue only if oxaloacetate (four-carbon compound) is regenerated at each turn of the cycle. If oxaloacetate is drawn off to biosynthesize glucose and amino acid precursors, the cycle would starve for what it needs to continue functioning.
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What is the variation of the citric acid cycle used for two-carbon compounds such as acetate?
Glyoxylate cycle
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Which two additional enzymes are used in the glyoxylate cycle?
Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase
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Why isn't the glyoxylate cycle needed for three-carbon compounds?
Any shortage of C4 CAC intermediates is compensated by synthesizing oxaloacetate from pyruvate or phosphoenolpyruvate
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