9 good questions and answers: "Attachment and Entry of Bacteriophage T4"

What determines the host range of a virus to a major extent?
The presence of a suitable receptor that the virus can recognize and attach to.
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What are examples of receptors that viruses can bind to?
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Glycoproteins
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins
  • Lipocomplex
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What receptor does bacteriophage T4 bind to?
Bacteriophage T4 recognizes the carbohydrates in the LPS outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.
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How does the viral genome of a bacteriophage T4 enter the host cell?
DNA inside the bacteriophage heads is under high pressure, and because the interior of a bacterial cell is also under pressure from osmotic forces, the sheath contracts and the DNA is injected. Because of the high pressures this process only takes several minutes to complete.
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What are weapons of bacteria and archaea agains viral attack?
  • Restriction modification system
  • Immune defense
  • CRISPR
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What is the restriction modification system?
The restriction modification system consists of a restriction endonuclease enzyme and a methylase.
The restriction endonuclease enzyme cleaves double stranded DNA. The methylase adds a methyl group to a molecule. In restriction-modification systems of bacteria a methyl group is added to DNA at a specific site to protect the site from restriction endonuclease cleavage.
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What is immune defense is bacteria?
Immune defense is the destruction of mRNA.
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What is the viral defense against host attack?


Viral counter mechanisms to evade bacterial restriction systems. Two types are:
  • Chemical modification of viral DNA (methylation or glucosylation)
  • Production of proteins that inhibit host cell restriction system
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What is the viral defense of a T4?
T4 adds a cytosine so that the host attack won't work anymore.
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