3 questions on "Metabolic Pathway of Microorganisms - Sulfate and Sulfur Reduction"

What are sulfate-reducing bacteria?
A highly diverse group of obligately anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in nature, which reduces sulfat (SO42-), the most oxidized form of sulfur.
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What is assimilative sulfate metabolism?
Sulfate metabolism in which organosulfur compounds are produced from sulfate.
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How does the reduction of SO42- to H2S work?
  1. SO42- is activated by the attachment of a phosphate of ATP by ATP sulfurylase, forming adenosine phosphosulfate (APS).
  2. There are two pathways:
    1. Dissimilative sulfate reduction:
      1. APS is reduced directly to SO32- by the enzyme APS reductase with the release of AMP.
    2. Assimilate sulfate reduction:
      1. A second phosphate is added to APS, forming phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS).
      2. PAPS is reduced to SO32-, oxidizing NADPH to NADP+.
  3. SO32- is reduced to H2S by sulfite reductase
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