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A snapshot of the summary - Brock Biology of Microorganisms Global edition
1 Introduction and Major Themes of Microbiology
What are Koch's four postulates (with limitations)?- Suspected pathogen must be present in diseased animal and not in healthy. (several human diseases do not cause disease in other animals)
- suspected pathogen must be grown in a pure culture. (some bacteria do not grow in a pure culture on a plate) (virusses can not grow on plates)
- cells from suspected pathogens cause disease in healthy animals.
- suspected pathogens must be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original pathogen.
Wat voor toxine is het cholera toxine?
A) Endotoxine en AB-toxine
B) Enterotoxine en AB-toxine
C) Endotoxine en cytotoxine
D) Enterotoxine en cytotoxineB) Enterotoxine en AB-toxine
2 Microbial cell structure and functiom
What is the function of a peptidoglycan?its a polymer that gives strength to the cell walls. It consists of a glycan and a peptide part.
What is different about archaeal cell walls?Pseudomurein instead of peptidoglycan. No outer membrane. S-layer
3 types of cell locomotion?- flagellum
- gliding motility (glide protein)
- taxis (in response to chem/physical gradient)
What are the differences between fimbriae and pili?Pili are longer than fimbriae. Pili dont only assist in the attachment of organisms to the surface of a cell but also conjugation (NA transfer).
What are 3 characteristics of endospores? And the 3 stages.- resistent to heat, harsh chemicals and radiation
- ideal for dispersal via wind/water etc.
- present in some gram-positive bacteria.
- terminal, subterminal and central
How is the speed and motion of a flagella determined? (inbacteria)The speed by the proton motive force (mot protein next to MS and C rings)
The motion is either peritrichous (slow and one direction) or polar (fast and can spin around)
3 Microbial Metabolism
What is a macronutrient and what is a micronutrient? (and example)A macronutrient is required in large amounts, e.g. potassium
A micronutrient is required in trace amounts, e.g. metal ions (Fe)
3 major prokaryotic transport mechanisms?- simple transport: proton motive force
- group translocation: chem. modification of transported substance driven by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
- ABC transporter: Energy from ATP. Periplasmic binding proteins.