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Summary Cases for Peak performace

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A snapshot of the summary - Cases for Peak performace

  • 2 Peak Performance

  • What is the difference between type I and type II respiratory failure?
    Type I: hypoxia without hypercapnia. 
    Type II: hypoxia with hypercapnia.
  • 2.1 Pulmonary volumes

  • What is the tidal volume?
    The amount of air displaced between each inspiration and expiration. Around 500ml for the average adult male.
  • What is the inspiratory reserve volume?
    The extra volume of air that can be inspired on top of the tidal volume during forced inspiration. Around 3000ml.
  • What is the expiratory reserve volume?
    The maximum amount of air that can be forcefully expired after the tidal volume expiration. Around 1100ml.
  • What is the residual volume?
    The volume of air that remains in the lungs following forced expiration. Around 1200ml.
  • 2.3.1 PEFR

  • What is the method for PEFR?
    Patient takes a deep breath in, to their total lung capacity, and then breathe out forcefully into the peak metre.
  • What is the difference between a peak flow meter and a spirometer?
    PEF: shows you how fast you can breathe out forcefully
    spirometer: shows the amount of air that is entering/exiting the lungs.  
     
    PEF is less accurate but cheaper and easier to use at home for the patient.
  • 2.3.2 Spirometry

  • What is the method of spirometry?
    Patient takes a deep inhalation, to their total lung capacity, followed by a maximum expiration into the spirometre.
  • What does spirometry measure?
    Measures the FEV1 and the FVC. Good measure of airflow limitation. The amount of air that you can get into and out of the lungs.
    They show how much air you blow out and how quickly you do it.
  • What is the normal FEV1:FVC?
    Around 75-85%- an healthy individual should be able to expire 75-85% of their vital capacity in 1 sec.
    A lower value can be indicative of asthma.
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