A snapshot of the summary - Catchment and Climate Hydrology
1. Course Info and Context
What is catchment hydrology?The study of hydrology in drainage basins. Typically at smaller scales of a hillslope or catchment. Focus on processes and models
Whatis climate hydrology?Study of interaction between terrestrial water cycle and the climate system. Typically larger spatial and temporal scales and across climate gradients. Focus on extremes and trends.
Give the mass balance for catchments?Eq: dS/dt = P-Q-ET
Rate of water storage change = Fluxin - Fluxout
2. Hydrological models and model evaluation
Is a complex model better because it represents more processes?No, generally not and especially not when following XX law.
Modeloptimization is an objective process. True/false?False, the modeller has to make many choices. Small changes in the manner of calculation or even starting values can have large effects in the results.
Give the definition for catchments and endorheic drainage basins and their difference?
Catchment: area of land from which all runoff convergesto a single point (outlet) at a lower elevation. Endorheic: do not drain to see, hence rivers might dry up. Endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that don't drain to an ocean. Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes/seas/sinks.
Name 3 types of catchments and their characteristics
Endorheic: inland basins that do not drain to the ocean.
- Headwater: small catchments which don't contain significant confluences (higher mountains)
- Mesoscale: area 1-1000 km2
Name two types of discharges and their difference?
Discharge: volume flux of water leaving catchment via streamflow (l/s or m3/s)
Specific discharge: normalized by catchment area (mm/h or mm/d)
Name one main catchment characteristic
Catchmentsare a control volume and thus have boundaries.
Describe what a
vstime graphpast a specific point in space.
- Typically measured at outlet
- Limbs: rising/falling
- Direction of time becomes visible (in contrast to precipitation time series that is very erratic)
- Higher grades + faster learning
- Don't study anything twice
- 100% sure, 100% understanding