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Summary Catchment and Climate Hydrology

Course
- Catchment and Climate Hydrology
- Teuling
- 2020 - 2021
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Earth and Environment
367 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Catchment and Climate Hydrology

  • 1. Course Info and Context

  • What is catchment hydrology?
    The study of hydrology in drainage basins. Typically at smaller scales of a hillslope or catchment. Focus on processes and models
  • What is climate hydrology?
    Study of interaction between terrestrial water cycle and the climate system. Typically larger spatial and temporal scales and across climate gradients. Focus on extremes and trends.
  • Give the mass balance for catchments?
    Eq: dS/dt = P-Q-ET 
    Rate of water storage change = Fluxin - Fluxout
  • 2. Hydrological models and model evaluation

  • Is a complex model better because it represents more processes?
    No, generally not and especially not when following XX law.
  • Model optimization is an objective process. True/false?
    False, the modeller has to make many choices. Small changes in the manner of calculation or even starting values can have large effects in the results.
  • Give the definition for catchments and endorheic drainage basins and their difference?
    Catchment: area of land from which all runoff converges to a single point (outlet) at a lower elevation.
    Endorheic: do not drain to see, hence rivers might dry up. Endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that don't drain to an ocean. Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes/seas/sinks.
  • Name 3 types of catchments and their characteristics
    • Endorheic: inland basins that do not drain to the ocean. 
    • Headwater: small catchments which don't contain significant confluences (higher mountains)
    • Mesoscale: area 1-1000 km2
    
  • Name two types of discharges and their difference?
    Discharge: volume flux of water leaving catchment via streamflow (l/s or m3/s)
    Specific discharge: normalized by catchment area (mm/h or mm/d)
  • Name one main catchment characteristic
    Catchments are a control volume and thus have boundaries.
  • Describe what a hydrograph is?
    • Discharge vs time graph past a specific point in space.
    • Typically measured at outlet
    • Limbs: rising/falling
    • Direction of time becomes visible (in contrast to precipitation time series that is very erratic)
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