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Summary CELS191

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A snapshot of the summary - CELS191

  • 1 CELS191 module 1

  • 1.1 Lecture Two : The Diversity of Life

  • Outline What are the characteristics that define Life and Explain them ?
    • CELLULAR ORGANIZATION : Contains membrane organelles that allow the cell to do its job.
    • REPRODUCTION : Offspring's arise from parents.
    • METABOLISM : The ability to store and release fuels.
    • HOMEOSTASIS : Maintain internal environment.
    • HEREDITY : Passing of genetic information.
    • RESPONSE TO STIMULI : Organisms sensitivity to change in environment.
    • GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT : Lifelong processes of physical and behavioral development.
    • ADAPTATION THROUGH EVOLUTION : Changes within a species over generations.
  • What are the 4 requirements of Natural Selection in Shaping Life and Explain them ?
    • VARIATION : All individuals in a population vary from one another.
    • INHERITANCE : Parents pass on their traits to their offspring's.
    • SELECTION : Some variants reproduce more than others.
    • TIME : Successful variations accumulate over many generations.
  • Outline What the Tree of Life is and Explain its key feature (Endosymbiosis) ?
    The tree of life is used to show how all life descends from a single ancestor.
    • ENDOSYMBIOSIS : The endosymbiosis theory states that two key organelles in eukaryotes are derived from bacteria.
    - Mitochondria are a result of endocytosis aerobic bacteria.
    - Chloroplasts are a result of endocytosis photosynthetic bacteria. 
  • Explain What a Phylogenetic Tree represents ?
    A phylogenetic tree tells us how related organisms are based on the number of characteristics (DNA variations or physical characteristics) they share. 
    By doing this with a wide range of organisms we are able to put all known life into three domains.
    These domains are Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea.  
  • What are the Characteristics of Eukarya ?
    • They have a nuclear envelope and membrane-enclosed organelles.
    • They do not have peptidoglycan in cell walls.
    • They have linear chromosomes.
    • Can not grow in temperatures >100degrees.
  • 1.2 Lecture Three : Building Blocks of Cells

  • Explain What is a Biomolecule ?
    Biomolecules are molecules produced by a living organism. They break down and group into different orders, from simple to complex.
  • Explain What is a Protein Macromolecule and Give examples and outline its function ?
    Proteins are polymers of Amino Acids. There are 20 different types of Amino Acids which are bonded together 
    • Examples : Collagen, Insulin , Actin and Myosin.
    Functions :
    - Structural support: Collagen is protein for skin and bone.
    - Regulatory : Insulin which is a peptide hormone.
    - Transport : Hemoglobin which carries oxygen throughout the body.
  • Explain What a Nucleotide Macromolecule is and Give Examples and outline its function ?
    A nucleotide is composed of a phosphate group, a ribose sugar and a nitrogenous base.
    • Nucleic Acids are polymers of nucleotides.
    Functions :
    - Genetic code.
    - Recipe for life.
    - Transcript to mRNA and Translates to proteins.
  • Explain What is a Lipid Macromolecule & Give examples and Outline its function ?
    Lipid macromolecules are different to other types of macromolecules because they are non-polymeric macromolecules.
    • Examples are Fatty Acids and Steroids.
    Functions :
    - Makes up part of the cells structural membrane.
    - Regulatory.
    - Energy. 
  • Explain What are Carbohydrate Macromolecules, Give examples and its functions ?
    Carbohydrates are complex macromolecules. They are polymers of monosaccharides.
    • Examples are :
    Hexose mono …. Glucose, fructose and galactose
    Pentose mono …. Deoxyribose and ribose
    Disaccharides …. Sucrose, lactose and maltose
    Functions :
    - Cell recognition.
    - Energy.
    - Makes up the cell wall of plant cells which helps keep the cell structure together.
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