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Summary CHEM105

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A snapshot of the summary - CHEM105

  • 2 EQUILIBRIUM

  • 2.1 equilibrium (Le Chateliers Principle)

  • What is chemical equilibrium
     - The state when concentrations of both reactants and products remain constant with time
    - rate of product formed = rate of reactant formed
  • What are the characteristics of chemical equilibria?
    1. Is a mixture of reactants and products
    2. The composition of the mixture no longer changes 
       concentration of reactants =/ concentration of products
    3.  It is dynamic equilibrium (has both forward and reverse reaction)
    4. The dynamic equilibrium can be controlled.
  • How to find the direction of a reaction
    You must compare Q to K
    • If Q<K : it will proceed to the right to reach equilibrium
    • If Q>K : it will proceed to the left to reach equilibrium
    • If Q = K : there will be no shift in the system (equalibrium)
  • Which phases do not have concentrations or pressures?
    1. Pure solids
    2. Pure liquids 

    ** must substitute it for a 1 instead**   
  • What does the magnitude of the Equilibrium Constant represent?
    It indicates the extent to which the forward and reverse reaction takes place
  • What does Intermediate K represent? (equilibrium constant)
    10^-3 < K < 10^2
    • At equilibrium [ significant amounts of both products and reactants ]
    ** some weak acids have intermediate Ka values**
     
  • What does Small K represent? (equilibrium constant)
    K < 10^-4
    • At equilibrium [ small products and large reactants]
    • reaction does not proceed much at all (reactants side) 
    • An example of Ksp (solubility equilibria)
  • What are the relationships of equilibrium constants?
    1. Reverse reaction is the reciprocal of forward reaction 
    2. Multiplying a reaction by factor n, you must raise K to that nth power
  • What happens to Q when you start with CD but with no AB? (Direction of Equilibrium?)
    (CD)/(AB) = (AB)/(0) = infinity 

    Therefore it will shift to the left
  • What is the Le Chateliers Principle?
    • If a change occurred in the reaction (concentration, temp, catalyst, volume, pressure) at equilibrium then it will shift in the direction that will reduce the change 
    • It will try to balance out   
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