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Summary Chemistry

- molecular gastronomy
- Guido Sala
- 2016 - 2017
- Wageningen University (Wageningen University, Wageningen)
- Food Technology
210 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Chemistry

  • 1 Chemistry behind colour changes

  • What is the colour of the pigments with the spectra above? an what pigments might these spectra represent?
    First one is yellow/ orange. carotenoid
    Second one is green. chlorophyll
  • 1.1 Caramelization

  • What is the difference in starting compounds of caramelization and the maillard reaction?
    caramelsiation: reducing sugar
    maillard reaction: amino compound
  • When can you make caramel of sugar or sugar syrup?
    You need:
    • persons of acid or alkaline catalysts 
    • low water activity
    • high temperature
  • What are the different reactions happening in caramelization?
    • Enolization
    • Dehydration
    • oxidation
    • Fission
    • Aldol concdensation
  • Why are there differences in caramelization temrpature?
    these sugars consist out of pyranose and furanose ring sugars. Pyranose has one C more and therefore more stable. You need less energy to open the furnaces ring. 
    Also disacharides need more energy to open and therefore a higher temperature. 
  • Hoe does the enolization step in caramel go?
    Dit is een acid catalysed reaction with mono schrods. 
    De dubble band verplaats van de O naar de 2e C. 
    Dit zorgt voor molecular diversity
  • What happens during the dehydration step?
    A H is extracted from the molecule. and you get different round components.
  • What is formed during the dehydration step?
    Aroma compounds
  • Which monosaccharides yield more products in dehydration, aldoses or ketoses?
    Ketoses since the reaction can go 2 ways in the elongation reaction. Therefore you get a bigger variaty of products in the dehydration reaction.
  • What happens in the oxidation reaction of caramelization?
    The enodial formed with the elongation reaction is very reactive. 
    In an oxidation reaction the H of the two upper C goes of and a double C bond is formed. 
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