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A snapshot of the summary - Chemistry
1 Chemistry behind colour changes
What is the colour of the pigments with the spectra above? an what pigments might these spectra represent?First one is yellow/ orange. carotenoid
Second one is green. chlorophyll
What is the difference in starting compounds of caramelization and the maillard reaction?caramelsiation: reducing sugar
maillard reaction: amino compound
When can you make caramel of sugar or sugar syrup?You need:
- persons of acid or alkaline catalysts
- low water activity
- high temperature
What are the different reactions happening in caramelization?
- Aldol concdensation
Why are there differences in caramelization temrpature?these sugars consist out of pyranose and furanose ring sugars. Pyranose has one C more and therefore more stable. You need less energy to open the furnaces ring.
Also disacharides need more energy to open and therefore a higher temperature.
Hoe does the enolization step in caramel go?Dit is een acid catalysed reaction with mono schrods.
De dubble band verplaats van de O naar de 2e C.
Dit zorgt voor molecular diversity.
What happens during the dehydration step?A H is extracted from the molecule. and you get different round components.
What is formed during the dehydration step?Aroma compounds
Which monosaccharides yield more products in dehydration, aldoses or ketoses?Ketoses since the reaction can go 2 ways in the elongation reaction. Therefore you get a bigger variaty of products in the dehydration reaction.
What happens in the oxidation reaction of caramelization?The enodial formed with the elongation reaction is very reactive.
In an oxidation reaction the H of the two upper C goes of and a double C bond is formed.