Summary Clinical neuropsychology Book cover image

Summary Clinical neuropsychology

- Roy Kessels
ISBN-10 9089537597 ISBN-13 9789089537591
315 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Clinical neuropsychology Author: Roy Kessels ISBN: 9789089537591

  • 2 Neuropsychology in practice

  • 2.2 neuropsychological tests

  • Which 4 stages does the diagnostic cycle in neuropsychology consist of?
    1. Complaint analysis
    2. problem analysis
    3. diagnosis
    4. indication for treatment
  • What are some considerations when trying to asses whether or not a test result is abnormal?
    • Are the results reliable, valid and truly reflective of the level of cognitive/emotional functioning of the patient
    • determine the test cut-off point based on the normative data
    • qualitative aspects
  • What is meant by a differential diagnosis?
    You always have to do a check to make sure the complaints and problems might not also have another explanation
    • don't just pay attention to results that confirm your hypothesis
    • first diagnosis seen as most plausible one 
  • 2.3 reliability and validity

  • What is meant by reliability and which types are there?
    Reliability is the accuracy of the measurement, there are 2 types
    •  test-retest: same result when test is taken at different times
    • inter-rater: correspondence between results of different researchers (cohens kappa)
  • What is meant by validity and which types are there?
    Validity is whether the test measures what it is supposed to measure, there are 5 types:
    • face validity: validity at first glance
    • content validity: extent to which a test is representative of the measured topic
    • construct validity: extent to which the result of the result reflects the cognitive function
    • criterion validity: extent to which a test can predict  the performance of a patient with regard to external criterion
    • ecological validity: how wel does the test predict daily functioning
  • 3 Neuropsychology: the scientific approach

  • Fundamental neuropsychological research
    Focuses on the understanding of underlying cognitive disorders/processes and related brain structures using experimental paradigms
  • Clinically oriented neuropsychological research
    Focuses on (improving) the assessment and treatment of brain disorders
  • 4 Neuroimaging

  • BOLD - Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent response (used in fMRI)
    Measures the ratio between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor haemoglobin
  • 5 Recovery and treatment

  • Direct neurological symptom of brain injury
    A loss of of a change in behaviour or cognitive proces as a direct consequence of damage to a functional brain system
  • 5.1 introduction

  • What is recovery in the context of this chapter?
    Recovery is regarded as progress in functioning in comparison with the time of brain injury, not a full return to premorbid functioning
    • Neurological level
      • Cerebral: brain plasticity
    • Psychological level
      • Behavioral and experiential: learning, newly acquired behavior resulting in brain modifications, plasticity
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