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Summary cognition memory and emotion

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- Memory, Language and Emotion
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A snapshot of the summary - cognition memory and emotion

  • lecture 1

  • What are the basic steps of memory?
    • Learning
    • storage of information
    • retention (behoud)
    • retrieval (or not) based on cue
  • What processes can influence the retention phase of memory?
    • Consolidation; information is reinforced
    • Generalization; similarities between events are remembered
    • Distortion; information is altered/influenced
    • Forgetting; information is lost
  • What was the first researcher on memory, and what did he research?
    • Aristotle first researched memory. 
    • he studied associations between stimuli and how you build knowledge from there.
    • this sparked an important philosophical thought in 17th and 18th Century (mainly British: John Locke, John Stuart Mill)
  • After aristotle, what further improvement in memory knowledge arose?
    • The book Rhetorica ad Herennium was written.
    • it is a self help book on how to get a better memory;
    • describes the method of loci;
    • 'if you want to remember a bunch of items in a particular order, place them along a story where you describe a route that is very familiar to you.'
  • What was the contribution of charles darwin on memory?
    • Memory, just like other features, is evolved to optimally help the species survive.
    • example; the honey bee has also intermediate memory, which lasts up to a few days. This is optimal to remember the location of nutritious flowers to communicate this to the hive.
      • bee doesn't remember flowers two months ago because it is not relevant for their survival.
  • What were the contributions of knowledge on memory of ebbinghaus?
    • Created the ebbinghaus forgetting curve
    • counted how well he remembered lists of meaningless syllables at different points in time.
  • What were the contributions of knowledge on memory of Jost?
    • Created Jost's law
    • If two memory traces have equal retrieval probability, but different ages, the older one will;
      • be forgotten more slowly than the younger one
      • benefit more from additional learning
  • What were the contributions of knowledge on memory of Bartlett?
    • He discovered that memories are complemented by known information.
    • if you show someone a picture, and ask which of the two pictures was shown earlier, they will say the left one.
    • because we know plates are whole and round, and hearts as well so we remember them as such even though the right picture was shown initially.

    Bartlett discovered memory is a construction; schemata and gestalt psychology.
  • What were the contributions of knowledge on memory of william james?
    • One of the founders of psychology
    • Distinguished primary and secondary memory, which is the equivalent of short and long term memory
    • discoverer of concepts like the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  • What were the contributions of knowledge on memory of Freud?
    • stressed emphasis on unconscious processes
    • proposed repression as a mechanism for forgetting (influence of emotion)
    • gave rise to the slip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
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