3 questions on "Changes in European cleavage structure and party landscapes"

What is cultural polarization and why did it rise up from the 1980s onwards?
Increasing ideological distrance between political parties, that rose due to structural economic and demographic changes across European societies resulted in cultural anxieties that have made issues like immigration, the Islam and the EU more salient
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What is fragmentation and how is it visible in Europe?
Fragmentation is many new parties successfully entering the party system with the simultaneous shrinking of former major parties, which you can see in the uprise of environmentalist parties and right-wing populist anti-immigration parties
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What are the issue dimensions that have been used to map differences between European countries?
Economic left-right dimension and the cultural liberal-authoritarian dimension
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