A snapshot of the summary - Consciousness & Control
Lecture 1: Attention (hannes)
What is the difference between overt and covert attention?
Overt attention --> Change body perspective to stimuli
Covert attention --> Change attention without external changes, while maintaining fixation
What happens during the cocktailparty effect?Capture through unattended infromation though something that stands out. E.g. your name
What are the findings from the dichotic listening experiment?People can't reproduce an unattended auditory stream after attending another stream simultaniously.
What are the findings from the Posner cueing task?
1. Attention improves reaction time
2. Larger visual evoked action potentials in P1
What does it mean when a cue 'captures' attention?A sudden cue 'claims' your attention to a certain location on a screen, even when you are aware that this location is mostly invalid.
Does attention always improve your reaction time? If not, why?No, the posner cueing task showed that when you delay the target after showing a prime (which captures your attention), your reaction time will decrease (read: gets slower) when this interval is > 300 ms. Why? --> action potential recently fired, and need some time to recover.
Explain the object based attention concept?Research has shown that when cueing in/on an object, leads to faster response when the target is on the same object then when the target is on a different object. This only occurs when the object are actually perceived.
Lecture 1: Attention
What does the Posner cuing task show?- Attention --> Faster reation times
- Larger amplitude action potentials
What is inhibition of return in an attentional capture task?Time between prime & Target > 300ms -->
Valid trials longer RT
Invalid trials shorter RT
Attentional capture & Inhibition of return are expressed at the neural level as:- Attentional capture: Increase in sensory responses
- Inhibition of return: Decrease in sensory responses
These have the same spatial distribution as voluntary attention effects.
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