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2.1 Consumer motivation
Explain the model of consumer motivation
| --> Tension (felt discomfort) --> Drive (energy) --> Goal object (something that will reduce the tension)
The greater the pressure, the greater the released force/drive. Drive provides the energy to act, goal object provides the direction in which to channel that energy.
What is purposive behavior?
Motivated behavior, the use of energy to attain a goal object.
Where comes the want in the consumer decision model?
The desire for a particular goal object is a consumer want.
Thus needs provide the drive, and the goal object provides the want.
Our needs and wants makes us different consumers.
What type of need is a face-lift?
A psychogenic need, this needs stems from our psychological makeups, our ways of thinking.
Explain the two types of motivations.
- Approach motivation: desire to attain a goal object.
- Avoidance motivation: desire to protect oneself from an object.
Also called appetitive and aversive motivation.
What is a approach-avoid conflict?
We experience this conflict when we find an object both desirable as undesirable, e.g. a product that has positive and negative features. Think of McDonalds, very nice food, but very unhealthy due to their fat and calorie content.
2.2 Maslow's model of hierarchy of needs
Can a product satisfy only one need or more?
A product is no longer tied to a specific need; it can now meet more than one need. Consumers must decide how many and which needs they want a product to satisfy. Therefore marketers must invent new versions of product classes so as to satisfy this new combinations of consumers' needs.
What is the problem of Maslow's needs?
It gives us answers in broad terms but not precisely. It paints everything with a broad brush, and as such it does not pinpoint consumer motivation at a level of detail.
Henry Murray proposed a list that will help us define consumer needs at a more detailed level than does Maslow.
What was the philosophy of Ernest Dichter with regard to motivations.
He believed that unconscious motives play a significant role in people's consumption decisions.
Unconscious motives influence consumption decisions unconsciously, therefore Dichter's list of motives is most useful for incorporating symbolism into product advertising.
2.3 Researching connsumer motives
There are two reasons why we would not learn, by direct questioning, what consumers' real motives for a given purchase might be.
- Motives might be unconscious (think of Dichter)
- Consumers might want to keep their motives private, e.g. it is not cool to reveal that you bought a car for status.