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Summary D3 Reading: Wines of the World

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A snapshot of the summary - D3 Reading: Wines of the World

  • 1 Introduction to France

  • How  exporting wines became profiterable for France
    The transport was not difficult because there was the possibility of transport over sea and the rivers
  • In the Middle ages export markets for wines from France were easily developed due to several reasons. Which are these?
    The transport overland was difficult therefore transport over sea and the major rivers developed. 
  • Paris was supplied by vineyard areas close by. Why? Give examples of regions which are still there.
    Because it was difficult to transport wine/grapes over land. Examples are vineyards planted in the regions Auxerre, Chablis, the Loire area.
  • 1.1.1 Climate

  • What is the latitude of the grape growing regions in France? Give some region examples on marked variable conditions
    42  to 49 degrees N lattitude

    Climate Conditions vary for example
    * Northerly, Atlantic influenced Muscadet (Loire)
    * Continental Burgundy
    * Mediterranean Provence
  • 1.1.2 Vineyard Management

  • Related to Vineyard management. What can you tell about the planting and training of vines in France?
    • Virtually all vineyards are planted at high density with vines trained on trellises.
    • Training: cane-replacement Guyot system – with vertical shoot positioning (VSP)
    • Exception in South of France; Bush vines
    • Note: Number of Organic grape growing increased fourfold in the decade 2007-2017
  • 1.1.3 Grape varieties

  • What are the top 2 grape varieties in France and why
    1. Merlot: plantings in Bordeaux and IGP Languedoc / 110.000ha
    2. Ugni Blanc: Cognac-Armagnac / 80.000ha
  • What are the top 10 grape varieties of France?
    France’s grape varieties are strongly associated with its individual wine regions.

    Top 10 varieties
    1. Merlot -> Bordeaux – IGP wines in Languedoc
    2. Ugni Blanc -> Cognac, Armagnac
    3. Grenache Noir
    4. Syrah
    5. Chardonnay
    6. Cabernet Sauvignon
    7. Cabernet Franc
    8. Carignan
    9. Pinot Noir
    10. Sauvignon Blanc
  • 1.2 Winemaking

  • French winemaking provided several 'inventions', which are these?
    In General:
    • Chaptalisation in cooler regions (less due to global warming, canopy management)
    • Canopy management
    • Maturations in barrels (small or large), a long standard.
    • Large cooperage industry
    • Support of wine institutes of Bordeaux and Montpellier
  • 1.3 Wine law & Regulations

  • In which year did France and the rest of EU allow to name the grape variety and vintage on the label? Why?
    In 2009, due to the popularity and commercial success of variety wines from the New World.
  • What is the meaning of the word INAO in the French wine industry? 
    • Institut National des Appellations d' Origine. 
    • Nowadays Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité
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