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Study Cards on australia, wine, high

Related to Australia, can you give historic dates and facts? Why where these dates so important and what was their influence on the export.
  • First exports in 1850s due to phylloxera in Europe
  • after WOII European immigrants and Australian tourists increased the demand for dry, non fortified wines

  • 1950s rise of Jacob's Creek, Lindemans, Hardys and Penfolds who modernised the industry:
  • Stainless steel tanks
  • Temperature control
  • Plantings, re-plantings in cooler areas
  • Irrigation

  • 1980s shift to export: new marketing approach by Wine Australia
  1. Labelling by grape variety
  2. providing taste descriptors on labels
  3. More accessible wines; fruit, vanilla, coconut oak.
Australia is home to some oldest plantings on their own roots, brought in by Scotsman James Busby in the 1830s.  Which are they and in which states are they planted.
Grenache, Shiraz and Muscat, planted in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania
Australia is a large exporter in wine, what is the current ranking.
  • Since the 2000s Australia is the 5th exporter of wine.
Plantings in Australia has dropped since the late 2000s, why was this and what factors have caused this. Producers had to shift their focus from what to what?
Plantings dropped to 146.000ha (from 170.000) due to oversupply as non-European countries started to follow the Australian model, therefore:
  • increased competition, reducing demand for inexpensive Australian wine
  • 2008 financial crisis, AUS$ strong, wine more expensive than competitors (ARG/CHI)
  • Grape prices were forced down, to remain competitive
  • Droughts increased cost of water for irrigation (essential for viticulture), result:
  • Number of growers went out of business
Nowadays: shift from inexpensive/high volume to higher-priced/smaller production
Australia developed a Wine Law system in the 1990s, what does it consist of.
Geographical Indications (GIs), Designated Wine regions, that split wine regions into zones, regions and sub-zones.
What is a GI in Australia? What does it stand for and what are the rules involved?
A Geographic Indication, a designated wine region.
  • Internationally protected and defined as a single tract of land.
  • Min producing 5T
  • min 5 independently owned vineyards
  • min 5ha each
  • Area must be discrete and homogeneous in its grape growing attributes
  • 85% rule for region, variety and vintage
  • Note: no rules on varietal (which is a benefit with the current climate changes).
Describe the climate and growing environment of New South Wales, Australia
  • On the east coast of Australia
  • Sydney
  • Most heavily populated state
  • 2nd largest in production
  • Sub-tropical climate: The Pacific coast is North.
  • Moderate to high temperatures, high humidity and rainfall
  • Hunter Valley, heavily influenced by these conditions
  • Other wine regions protected by Great Dividing Range (from tropical weather)
  • Inland mainly continental and very hot and dry (Big Rivers Zone incl. Riverina)
Describe the climate and growing environment of Tasmania
  • Island south of Australia (250km)
  • 1500ha vines
  • producer of premium wines
  • 2/3 still wines, 1/3 sparkling
  • Southern latitude 41-43°S
  • Cool maritime climate
  • Western winds from Southern Ocean, giving high levels of rain on the west side.
  • East side dry and sheltered.
  • South: cooler, site selection essential (north/east facing)
  • South east: drier, less humid, irrigation maybe necessary
  • North & East: warmer, rain, humid, fungal diseases
  • Spring fros is threat (sprinklers, frost fans)
What are the main grape varieties of Tasmania? What is know about the vinification of these varieties?
  • 50% Pinot Noir: light/m bodied, m/h acidity, strawberry and cherry
  • 25% Chardonnay: m bodied/alcohol, naturally high acidity, full MLF, top wines undergo barrel fermentation.
  • 25% sauvignon blanc, riesling, pinot gris
  • also some shiraz, cabernet sauvignon and merlot.
  • Maturation in old oak, small portion new.
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