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Study Cards on wines, tokaj, fungus

What is the location of Tokaj, Hungary and what is the climate?
  • North-east of Hungary, foothills of the Zemplén mountains. Borders with Slovakia.
  • Rivers Bodrog and Tisza meet giving fog in autumn, ideal for noble rot.
  • Moderate continental climate
    • 48-49°NB;
      • sheltered by forested mountain peaks
      • vineyards planted on slopes facing south, south-west and south-east for max sun exposure
      • 1400-1500 hrs sun in growing season
    • Rainfall low, irrigation not permitted
What is special about the soil in Tokaj and what does it add to the style of wines?
  • Hundreds of volcanoes, complex.
  • Most significant is the..nyirok = volcanic soil for the most powerful wines,
  • Loess
  • sandy silt with high clay for more delicate wines (west of Tokaj hill)
  • Roots can go deep into the Soft volcanic bedrock, also ideal for cellars and ageing the wine.
  • Famous fungus Zasmidium cellare: grey black cushiony fungus to regulate humidity
How was the plantings traditionally in Tokaj and what is the current situation, threats and yields?
  • Plantings traditionally single post and 10.000 vines density
  • Nowadays on trellis, using cane pruning or cordon training with VSP and lower density - 4/5000 per ha
  • Hand harvesting for Aszú berries
  • diseases: powdery mildew and grey rot. Also risk of wild boar and birds.
  • Yields Aszú berries: 2 to 3 hl/ha
  • Yields dry wines also low to ensure quality: 30-40hl/ha
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