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Summary Development and Globalization

Course
- Development and Globalization
- dr. F. Colombijn
- 2014 - 2015
- Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
- development studies
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A snapshot of the summary - Development and Globalization

  • Introduction; structure and agency; different meanings of the concept of ‘development

  • Tell us about the optimistic years of modernization 1950s-1960s
    Economic centred

    Desired state= to become like the West
    strategy=industralization through capital accumulation
  • Tell us about the structural adjustment in the 1980s

    Economic centered

    Desired state: Industrialized societies,which are internationally competitive in a capitalist world
    Strategy: neo-liberalism
    Definition of poverty: Lack of income
  • Tell us about the Human development 1990s

    People centred

    Desired state: capabilities, people’s agency
    Strategy: social capital, capacity building, good governance
    Definition of poverty: lack of capabilities

  • Pendulum of economy- and people-centred development

    Economy-centred:
    Modernization (1950-1960s) ,Structural adjustment: the lost decade (1980s)
    People-centred:
    Debt-led growth & basic needs (1970s) and Human development, capabilities (1990s)
  • Measuring poverty and development

  • What is monetary poverty?
    You are poor when you earn less than one dollar a day (individual or household)--> one dollar a day for an individual and one dollar for a household is a huge difference.
    Lot of economic activities that are not counted as income (growing  own food, flat tire that you repair yourself) what about non-monetary goods
    Do you have a lot of assets or not
  • inequality, kuznets curve 
    Upper 10% and the lowest 10%
    Some profit more of development so a small increase in inequality. Later this inequality will decrease again maybe not total equality, but after a far amount. Richer one will share, other people will join.

    Lorenz Curve
    The closer by 0, the more equality, rise, steeply the more inequality
  • The state, good governance, corruption

  • How should a state look like
    On the world map you can clearly see the boundaries of the states, but in reality, on the ground it is not clear. Some state only exist on paper (Palestine, Kurdistan(
  • There are 12 criteria for a failing state


    1. demographic pressures
    2. refugees/IDPs
    3. group grievance
    4. human flight
    5. uneven development
    6. economic decline


    7. delegitimization of the state
    8. public services
    9. human rights
    10.security apparatus
    11.factionalized elites
    12.external intervention


    Most failing state is Somalia

  • Developmental states are effective, but …

    • Democracies do not go to war with each other.
    • In democracies, the chance that people starve is smaller.
    • Democracy promotes local participation in development, which is necessary condition for sustainable development.
    • Democracies are better able to send corrupt leaders home.

  • Critical thoughts about NGOs (Mercer)

    • civil society is fragmented and unorganised
    • NGOs are internally undemocratic
    • NGOs can be corrupt 
    • NGOs replicate social divisions in society and may fuel social conflict
    • NGO staff has no substantive roots in underprivileged groups

    • state and civil society are often interwoven 
    • NGOs are donor-driven (and not accountable to grassroots)
    • proliferation of social welfare organizations has distracted from political agenda
    • Increased financial support for NGOs may undermine a participatory civil society

    We do not want to go into the slums
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