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Summary Development Of Primary Relationships Samenvatting Boek

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A snapshot of the summary - Development of Primary Relationships samenvatting boek

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  • Why are humans essentially social beings?
    Our ultimate happiness and despair are founded on relationships. 

    One study: friendship was rated above power, recognition, excitement and above a comfortable life by 89% of the people.
  • Most relationships include three aspects, which three?
    - interdependence
    - need fulfillment
    - emotional attachment
  • Which studies are there of relationships within psychology?
    1. Freuds theory: role of parent child relationships in personality development
    2. Developmental psychology: personality shaped by a person's attachment history
    3. Social psychology: people influence and are influenced by others 
    4. Personality theories: big five theory
    5. Cognitive: babies are prewired to have cognitive abilities that facilitate the formation of relationships
    6. Health: recognition that any comprehensive intervention involving both physical and mental health must take account of people's relationships
  • What do the different theoretical perspectives say about relationships?
    - reinforcement: based on the premise that people behave in a way that is rewarding for them
    - evolutionary: guided by the principle that behavior is influenced by evolved biological mechanisms. Social groups increase the chances of survival and reproduction
    - attachment theory: earliest experiences of relationships have an influence on our capacity to engage in relationships later
  • What is the key to our evolutionary succes?
    Human sociality 
    humans do not have a lot of physical capabilities to protect themselves
  • What does the beloningness hypothesis state?
    That humans have a need to form and maintain strong, stable and interpersonal relationships > this need is a powerful fundamental motivation ---> daarom hebben we affiliation nodig
  • Why is the first relationship a child develops very important?
    Because of their later development
    - bowlby: an innate tendency to form an attachment to one specific individual (monotropy)
    - first attachment crucial since it serves as an internal working model of how relationships should be
    - critical period during which the baby can form an attachment quite easily and after that period it will probably not form a permanent attachment
  • What are the stages of attachment?
    - Six weeks: infants smile at all people
    - two to three months: infants are able to recognize faces. They start to smile more at familiar people
    - 7 months: first strong attachment is made. Stranger anxiety
  • From the strange situation study, we can classify three types of attachment
    - A: avoidant attachement: child shows little or no concern when mother leaves or returns. Child shows little preference for who is with them, they just avoid and ignore them
    - B: Secure attachment --> infant explore when mother is there, show distress when she leaves, happy when she came back 
    - C resistant (anxious) attachment: close to mother, no exploring. Return: child can be very ambivalent
    D disorganized insecure attachment: child shows no set of pattern of behavior when the mother leveas or returns
  • What does bowlby believe about relationship mom and child?
    All babies have a biological need for a warm intimate and continuous relationship with their mother.

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