Summary: Emotie (Tycho)

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  • College 1+2; history

    This is a preview. There are 23 more flashcards available for chapter 06/01/2020
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  • What is the difference between emotion and basic drives?

    Basic drives reflect the needs of the body, not responses tot external stimuli
  • How did greek thinkers think about the role of emotion for a good life?

    Aristotle (350BC): - Judgements can be influenced by emotions
    --> Cultivation of proper, balanced emotional experience is important for good decisions.

    Hedonists: The only intrinsic good is pleasure (absence of pain and presence of enjoyable sensations)
    --> Take momentary pleasure wherever you can get it  

    Epicureans (300 BC): Greatest good is modest pleasure in the absence of pain and freedom from distress and worry
    --> abstinence is desirable, demonstrating emotional control 

    Stoics: Emotions are false judgements and neet to be overcome to be a clear thinker
    --> avoid emotions through self-discipline, rely on logical thinking
  • Who rediscovered emotion, and what were his thoughts?

    Herbert Spencer (1855)

    Very modern view: Highlighting the links between cognition, emotion, and memory.
  • What are the 3 components from the psychoanalytic theory of Freud (1920)?

    Id: Basic drives, instincts, desires. "I want"
    Ego: Sense of self, Mediator. "I will"
    Superego: Moral: right and wrong. "I should"
  • Emotion formation according to Freud?

    - Derived from instincts and drives, and occur when a drive is blocked.
    - Emotions as conscious feelings of unexpressed unconscious desires
    - Repression of emotions can lead to mental illness

    Theory was influential but wrong:
    - Not based on experimentation, more philosophical, not falsifiable
    - Freud paved the way for modern investigations of conscious vs unconscious brain processes
  • What did Darwin discover regarding emotion?

    The universal expression of emotion.
    - Focus on physical expression of emotion: most objective measure
    - Similarities in emotional expression across cultures and species: expression of emotion is largely innate (aangeboren, natuurlijk)
    - In human adults, only some expressions have an adaptive function, others are vestigial (no longer useful)
  • What are the few basic, discrete emotion categories?

    - Innate and culturally universal
    - Triggered by external stimuli or events
    - Dedicated neural circuitry for each emotion 
    - Emotion specific stereotyped response
    --> each instance of an emotion has the same pattern of behavior, bodily activation, facial expression, and perhaps even conscious experience
  • What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?

    Stimulus --> bodily response --> feeling

    We are afraid because we tremble and run from a bear. Not the other way around

    More specific:
    Stimulus --> Sensory cortex --> motor cortex --> bodily changes --> sensory cortex --> feeling
  • What is a cognitive appraisal theory?

    Emotions as cognitive judgements of situations.
    Common sense: the same stimulus can trigger different emotions, depending on the situation and our interpretation.
  • What did the study of Dutton & Aron (1974) show? (experiment on the bridge)

    Misattribution of arousal: Physiological arousal related to fear mislabeled as romantic arousal
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