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A snapshot of the summary - Encyclopedia of Counseling Master Review and Tutorial for the National Counselor Examination, State Counseling Exams, and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination
3 Human Growth and Development
According to Piaget, a child masters the concept of reversibility in the third stage, known as concrete operations or concrete operational thought. This notion suggests
a. that heavier objects are more difficult for a child to lift.
b. the child is ambidextrous.
c. the child is more cognizant of mass than weight.
d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.d. one can undo an action, hence an object can return to its initial shape.
Choice “d” is the definition of reversibility. The word ambidextrous, utilized in choice “b,” refers to an individual’s ability to use both hands equally well to perform tasks.
During a thunderstorm, a 6-year-old child in Piaget’s stage of preoperational thought (stage 2) says, “The rain is following me.” This is an example of
d. abstract thought.
Expect to see a question on the test like this one and you can’t go wrong. This is the typical or prototype question you will come across in order to ascertain whether you are familiar with the Piagetian concept of egocentrism. By egocentrism, Piaget was not really implying the child is self-centered. Instead, egocentrism conveys the fact that the child cannot view the world from the vantage point of someone else. Choice of “d” mentions abstract thought, which does not occur until Piaget’s final or fourth stage known as formal operations.
Lawrence Kohlberg suggested
a. a single level of morality.
b. two levels of morality.
c. three levels of morality.
d. preoperational thought as the basis for all morality.c. three levels of morality.
Kohlbergs theory has three levels of moral development: the Preconventional, Conventional, and Postconventional level which is referred to in some texts as the Personal Integrity or Morality of Self-Accepted Principles level. Each level can be broken down further into two stages.
A person who has successfully mastered Erikson’s first seven stages would be ready to enter Erikson’s final or eighth stage,
a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. initiative versus guilt.
c. identity crisis of the later years.
d. integrity versus despair.d. integrity versus despair.
Each stage is seen as a psychosocial crisis or a turning point. Erikson did not imply that the person either totally succeeds or fails. Instead, he says that the individual leans toward a given alternative (e.g., integrity or despair). The final stage begins at about age 60. An individual who has successfully mastered all the stages feels a sense of integrity in the sense that his or her life has been worthwhile.
Kohlberg’s second level of morality is known as conventional morality. This level is characterized by
b.a desire to live up to society’s expectations.
c.a desire to conform.
d.b and c.
d.b and c.
At the conventional level the individual wishes to conform to the roles in society so that authority and social order can prevail. Kohlberg felt that attempts to upgrade the morals of our youth have failed and he has referred to some character-building education programs as “Mickey Mouse stuff!”
Kohlberg’s highest level of morality is termed postconventional morality. Here the individual
a.must truly contend with psychosexual urges.
b.has the so-called “good boy/good girl” orientation.
c.has self-imposed morals and ethics.
d.a and b.
c.has self-imposed morals and ethics.
Only one answer is correct here, folks. Choice “a” reflects the Freudian theory, while choice “b” is stage 3 of Kohlberg’s theory, which occurs at the conventional level. In the “good boy/good girl orientation” the person is concerned with approbation and the ability to please others in order to achieve recognition.
According to Kohlberg, level 3, which is postconventional or self-accepted moral principles,
a.refers to the Naive Hedonism stage.
b.operates on the premise that rewards guide morals.
c.a and b.
d.is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.d.is the highest level of morality. However, some people never reach this level.
Hedonism mentioned in choice “a” occurs in stage 2 of the preconventional level. Here the child says to himself, “If I’m nice others will be nice to me and I’ll get what I want.” Choice “b” actually refers to the first stage of the preconventional level which is the punishment versus obedience orientation
Freud and Erikson
a.could be classified as behaviorists.
b.could be classified as maturationists.
c.agreed that developmental stages are psychosexual.
d.were prime movers in the biofeedback movement.b.could be classified as maturationists.
In the behavioral sciences, the concept of the maturation hypothesis (also known as the maturation theory) suggests that behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors, but that certain behaviors will not manifest themselves until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment. In addition, the theory suggests that the individual’s neural development must be at a certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. A counselor who believes in this concept strives to unleash inborn abilities, instincts, and drives. The client’s childhood and the past are seen as important therapeutic topics.
The statement: “Males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations” is
b.true due to a genetic flaw commonly found in women.
c.true only in middle-aged men.
d.true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.d.true according to research by Maccoby and Jacklin.
Maccoby and Jacklin reviewed the literature and found very few differences that could be attributed to genetics and biological factors. The superiority of males in the area of mathematics, however, was not significant until high school or perhaps college. Girls who excelled in science and math often identified with their fathers and were encouraged to value initiative and were given independence. Thus, the major impetus for sex-role differences may come from child-rearing patterns rather than bodily chemistry.
The Eriksonian stage that focuses heavily on sharing your life with another person is
a.actually the major theme in all of Erikson’s eight stages.
b.generativity versus stagnation—ages 35 to 60.
c.intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.
d.a critical factor Erikson fails to mention.c.intimacy versus isolation—ages 23 to 34.
If you didn’t know the answer, did you guess? Yes, of course I’m being serious. Remember no penalty is assessed for guessing on the NCE/CPCE. An educated guess based on the fact that intimacy implies sharing one’s life would have landed you a correct answer here. Counselors need to be aware that an individual who fails to do well in this stage may conclude that he or she can depend on no one but the self.