Summary: Evolutionary Developmental Biology

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Evolutionary Developmental Biology

  • 1. Evolutionary conservation of hormones and enzymes

    This is a preview. There are 4 more flashcards available for chapter 06/02/2019
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  • What is the difference between diabetes type I and type II?

    Type I:
    • Hyposecretion of insulin
    • Insulin dependent
    • Juvenile onset

    Type II:
    • Late onset (adult)
    • Insensitive to insulin
    • Managed by exercise and diet 
  • Peptide hormones are prohormones. What is meant with this?

    It means that the hormones are large precursor hormones, they need to be processed before being bioactive.
  • How become peptide hormones bioactive?

    • Endo- and exoproteolysis (cleavage into smalles fragments)
    • Modifications (α-amidation, acetylation, phosphorylation)
  • What does dysregulation of insulin/glucagon cause?

    Dysregulation of insulin/glucagon leads to obesity. Neuropsychiatric diseases are often comorbid with obesity / problems with glucose regulation.
  • How are peptide hormones synthesized?

    It is a regulated secretory pathway, this means that synthesis and release is on demand. 
    • Proteins require a signal peptide 
    • Synthesis via ER, to Golgi and exocytosis via large-dense core vesicles via membrane fragments (endosomes)
  • What is a constitutive secretory pathway?

    A constitutive secretory pathway is continuous, the proteins do not have a signal peptide
  • What happens during protein folding in insulin processing?

    Insulin contains 2 chains; A and B chain connected via sulfide bridges. Insulin prohormone contains a signal peptide directing it to the regulated secretory pathway. Insulin prohormone contains (from N- to C-terminus) the B, A and C chain. Disulfide bridges (through C-residues) keep the chains together.
  • What are the prohormone convertases (PCs) needed for insulin?

    • PC2
    • PC1/3
  • Where does PC1/3 cleave proinsulin?

    PC1/3 cleaves the B/C chain.
  • What happens when genes for PCs are deleted?

    Deletion of genes for PCs cause early diabetes and problems in the immune system.

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