What are the key factors that may cause misunderstanding in intercultural communication? - Defining misunderstanding

3 important questions on What are the key factors that may cause misunderstanding in intercultural communication? - Defining misunderstanding

How does Bremer (1996) define misunderstanding?

It refers to the occasions on which the listener achieves an interpretation, which makes sense to her or him - but it wasn't the one the speaker meant.
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How does Bremer (1996) define non-understanding?

Those occasions when the listener fails to make sense of what has been said by the speaker. The person involved usually indicates that there is a problem with her understanding.
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How should misunderstanding or non-understanding be seen?

Bremer (1996) and Roberts (1996) see these two terms as poles of a continuum with partial lack of understanding in between, due to the largely invisible nature of misunderstanding.
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