These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'advertisements', 'advertising' and 'language', originating from:

- Zhu Hua
ISBN-10 1136029761 ISBN-13 9781136029769
566 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on advertisements, advertising, language

Why do advertisements have many features of their own?
To serve their main purpose of influencing their audiences.
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What kind of features do advertisements have?
They employ a range of attention-seeking and persuasive devices including the use of shocking or unusual images, manipulation of typographical or linguistic features, use of a combination of different means of communication such as music, pictures, paralanguage and discourse.
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What did Haghirian and Madlberger (2004) find?
Although mobile advertising allowed context-sensitive messages and a high level of customisation, both Austrian and Japanese students were sceptical towards mobile advertising. The Japanese students perceived mobile advertising more positively than the Austrian students.
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How do Haghirian and Madlberger (2004) account for the cross-cultural differences?
This could be due to the popularity of mobiles and the perception of mobile phones as a means of entertainment in Japan.
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What did Keshtgary and Khalejpour (2011) find?
Iranian users of mobiles perceived mobile advertising, with the help of games, puzzles, jokes, song, etc., to be entertaining. The Iranian users did not have negative attitudes towards mobile advertising but they preferred to be asked to consent to receiving advertisements. Incentives that offer free minutes on the phone also were found to have a more positive influence on the Iranian users' acceptance of mobile advertising.
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Why does Kuwait have strict regulations on or even forbid advertising certain products such as pharmaceutical products or cigarettes?
Advertisements for drugs are strictly controlled on the assumption that it is patients who ultimately bear the cost of advertising.
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What does the Toubon Law, which was adopted by the French Senate on 4 August 1994, requires?
It requires the use of French in commercial advertisements, public announcements and product packaging along with other workplace-related activities. For advertisements originally designed in a foreign language, the minimal requirement is to add a footnote with everything translated into French.
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What kind of rules have been laid out in Canada for advertisements directed at children?
Advertisers must not use words such as 'new' or 'introducing' to describe a product for more than 1 year; advertisers may not promote craft and construction toys that the average child cannot put together; advertisers are not allowed to recommend that children buy or make parents buy their product.
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How do religion and culture-specific practices influence advertisements?
Quranic messages have special significance for the types of goods or products that can be promoted, when advertisements can be played, what values advertisements should appeal to and how linguistic strategies may be used in advertisements.
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What is comparative advertising?
Comparative advertising is the type of advertisement which explicitly or by implication identifies a competitor or goods or services offered by a competitor. It is an increasingly popular marketing strategy used by supermarkets, mobile phone, broadband and automobile companies, and banks.
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What is the rationale of comparative advertising?
It provides information about available products and hence helps consumers to make well-informed choices.
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What do the new regulations in EU countries in 2000 include?
Comparative advertising is permitted if comparisons are made objectively without misleading consumers.
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What did a comparison between the UK and the US show?
British commercials tend to contain more product information and focus on unique selling propositions, while American ones make more connection with lifestyle and use more personal testimonials. British commercials adopt soft-sell strategies and make good use of humour. American commercials tend to hard-sell, to focus on brand image and use emotive strategies.
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What did a comparison between the US and East Asian countries confirm?
Countries such as Japan, China and Korea tend to use implicit or indirect appeal.
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What did a comparison between the US, Taiwan and France show?
Different discourse styles: straight talk with dominant use of arguments in US commercials; story-telling with higher levels of information and obligation strategies in Taiwan; and symbolic association strategies in French commercials.
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What did a comparison of prime-time television commercials between the US, Japan, Korea and China show?
American commercials use the speech act of suggestion to buy with the highest frequency, while Japanese commercials use the fewest number of speech acts of suggestion to buy. Korean and Chinese commercials fall in between these two styles.
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Why do advertisements often appeal to one's values in making a product particularly attractive or interesting to consumers?
Since values influences one's evaluation and decision processes and play a critical role in assessing a product's attributes.
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What did a study by Unusier (2000) reveal?
Although women are more likely to be shown in non-working roles than men in advertisements across cultures, differences exist in the type of gender roles to which advertisements appeal.
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What is the role of women in Swedish advertisements?
Women are rarely depicted in housework and childcare activities.
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What is the role of women in Malaysian advertisements?
Women are typically presented as housewives whose main roles are looking after the house and children.
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What is the role of women in Singaporean advertisements?
Women are likely to appear in white-collar or clerical roles while men are shown in middle management roles.
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What are potential areas of cross-cultural difference?
Family values and attitudes to the elderly.
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What is the attitude towards the elderly in Japanese advertisements?
They are shown more respect and given more prominent roles than their American counterparts.
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What are the issues with translating advertisements from one language to another?
There is a semantic issue when a brand name crosses borders. Intended connotations can be lost while unintended meanings can be brought in. Culturally specific symbolic meanings and connotations are also difficult to translate.
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Why is it an important consideration in promoting a national brand name to an international audience whether or not to keep the brand name in its original language?
Since most brands are originally conceived on a national level and in their source language.
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What was Sony's approach to brand management?
Rebranding to gain international recognition.
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What was Procter and Gamble's approach to brand management?
A twofold branding strategy to allow local adaptation.
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What was Ma Griffe's approach to brand management?
Preservation of the original brand name to reinforce its association with the country of origin.
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What was Häagen-Dasz's approach to brand management?
Deliberate use of 'foreign' brand name to manipulate perception and evaluation of product quality.
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What can be the purpose of foreign language or multilingualism in headlines, subheads and straplines in advertising?
It indexes the cultural stereotypes, national images or language ideologies associated with the language(s) other than the source language. The ethono-cultural stereotypes drawn upon in advertisements are surprisingly similar across cultures.
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What connotations do French names have?
High fashion, refined elegance, chic femininity and sophisticated cuisine.
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What connotations do German names have?
Reliability, precision and superior technology.
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What connotations do Italian names have?
Good food and a positive attitude to life.
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What connotations do Spanish names have?
Freedom, adventure and masculinity.
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What connotations do English names have?
Modernity, internationalisation, sophistication, global, modern, fun-seeking, attractive, agent of social change by introducing new concepts and lifestyle, appealing to its viewers with desirable identities.
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What are the challenges with the use of foreign languages in advertising?
In countries or regions where the national language is often seen as a symbol of unity and social cohesion, concerns have been raised about the increasing use or 'invasion' of English in advertising and media in general.
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What can the ethno-cultural or natural images advertisements attempt to invoke with a foreign language serve to?
To reinforce national, linguistic, cultural and racial boundaries.
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