These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'culture', 'values' and 'iceberg', originating from:

- Zhu Hua
ISBN-10 1136029761 ISBN-13 9781136029769
566 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on culture, values, iceberg

What is the consensus with regard to culture?
Culture manifests itself in every aspect of life and is not confined to art, music, literature, food, fashion, festivals and folklore. The invisible ones such as values, beliefs, attitudes, assumptions, etc., are at the core and thus more fundamental than those visible, tangible or audible ones, such as behaviours, appearances or ways of doing things.
Which two well-known metaphors are there with regard to culture?
  1. culture as an onion
  2. culture as an iceberg
What is culture as an onion?
Each culture component is enveloped by another layer of culture components
What is culture as an iceberg?
Culture components are compared to an iceberg, with values, beliefs, etc., hidden beneath the surface
What are categorisations of national cultures in terms of values and belief systems?
  • cultural dimensions: individualism vs. collectivism, high vs. low power distance, masculinity vs. femininity, high vs. low uncertainty avoidance, and long- vs. short-term orientation
  • basic human values: self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, power, security, conformity, tradition, benevolence and universalism
  • cultural theories: high vs. low context, polychronic vs. monochronic time, and proxemics
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