These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'language', 'communication' and 'english', originating from:

- Zhu Hua
ISBN-10 1136029761 ISBN-13 9781136029769
566 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on language, communication, english

What is vertical internal communication for multinational corporations?
It refers to the information flow between head office and divisions/subsidiaries at different hierarchical levels.
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What is horizontal internal communication for multinational corporations?
It refers to the information flow between individuals at the same hierarchical level but in different units or subsidiaries.
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What are the advantages of adopting a common corporate language for internal communication?
It offsets the negative effects of language diversity, facilitates communication, coordination and central control, and creates and maintains a shared identity and vision. At a practical level, it reduces the need for translation and incidence of miscommunication and speeds up decision-making and implementation processes.
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Why is the use and implementation of a common corporate language often difficult and complex in practice?
The question is which language should be used in internal communication: English or local language? If English, what English?
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Which issues emerged (Charles and Marschan-Piekkari, 2002)?
The difficulty of finding a common language where none seemed to exist; comprehension problems due to insufficient translation of documentation into subsidiary languages; difficulty in understanding the various accents in which English was spoken internationally; centralisation of power into the hands of those who were able to obtain and disseminate information through knowing the official corporate language or the parent company language; feeling of isolation in those lacking or with inadequate skills in the corporate language.
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What did Nickerson (1998) find?
The needs (or requirements) of one powerful native speaker individual are likely to outweigh the interest of the non-native majority.
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What are Charles and Marschan-Pierkkari's (2002) recommendations?
  • Conducting a linguistic audit to find out potential problematic areas in communication and language use;
  • making comprehension proficiency a priority as an interim measure;
  • encouraging staff to understand and negotiate Global English, i.e. different varieties of English, and learn to use a variety of communicative strategies and meta-communicative expressions;
  • including native English speakers in communication training as they also have and cause communication problems;
  • making language and communication training a corporate-level function.
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Which external communication issues have implications for intercultural communication?
Language- and culture-specific features associated with the ways in which speech acts such as requests, compliments, disagreement and giving bad news are realised in business activities such as sales letters and emails.
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What often leads to different patterns in speech act realisations?
Cross-cultural differences in concern for face, power, social distance, imposition and status.
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For external communication, which cross-cultural differences may exist?
How a specific speech act or activity is realised, what rhetorical strategies are preferred, how information is conveyed on websites and how credibility of communication is managed.
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For internal communication, which decisions need to be taken into consideration?
Whether to adopt a common corporate language (and which language to choose), the pros and cons of adopting a corporate language as well as practical and contextual constraints.
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