Alimentary track

24 important questions on Alimentary track

What are the mechanical breakdowns in the alimentary tract (AT)?

  • Chewing food into small pieces
  • Contraction of the muscles along the AT

What are the chemical fors of breakdown in the AT?

digestion with enzymes
protiens --> AA
fats --> fatty acids
carbohydrates --> glucose

What do gigestive enzyme cause and how do they work?

Enzymes lower the activation energy
Digestive enzymes cause hydrolysis

Where are digestive enzymes present?

All trough the alimentary track expect for the colon

What kind of digestion happens in the small intestines?

most chemical digestion by enzymes produced by the pancreas of intestinal cells.

What kind of digestion happens in the large intestines?

Digestion by microflora, fibers

What does saliva consist of, form what is it produced and for what is it useful?

99% water
1% salt, mucus, enzyme and antimicrobial compounds
produced by saliva glands (foor mout, ears)
usefull for lubrication, chemical digestion, anti microbial function and important for tasting

What is the upper and the lower esophageal sphincter?

uppper: muscularing that losses when food is swallowed
lower prevents reflux of food from the stomach

What happens when you swallow food?

Bout the upper and the lower esphageal relax so the food can go into the stomach. A motion called peristalsis helps this.

What classes the stomach?

The stomach is closed by the lower esophageal sphincter and the politic sphincter.

What are the 4 main cell types in the stomach?

  1. Chief cells, produce pepsine (cuts protein)
  2. Parietal cells, hydrochloric acid (gives a lower pH to the stomach)
  3. Goblet cells, produce mucus (slijm), fluvial cells lay over it in order to protect them form the low pH of the stomach
  4. Endocrine paracrine cells, produce hormones

What are the 2 main hormones in the duodenum?

secretien and chlystrokin

What main function of the column and how does to movement go?

Main function column is absorbing water and serve as vehicle. Lot of microorganisms are present that food on fibers.
Movement is due to peristalsis (contraction and relaxation of circular muscles.

Where and how does most digestion take place?

Manly by juices of the pancreas and the small intestent.

What are the enzymes are produced in the pancreas?


Added in the duodenum.

What are the enzymes produced by the enterocytes?

They lay in the small intestines and they produce:
disaccharidases and peptidases.

What are the enzymes produced by the liver?

bile (gal), sotred in the gall bladder. Released to duodenum. Functions as emulsifier and therefore helps with digestion.

How does fat enter the body?

Trout the lymphatic vessels (lacteals).

What are the 5 main cells in the intestinal wall?

  1. Entrocytes, meeste van aanwezig produceren digestive enzymes and main absorption cell.
  2. Goblet cells, produce mucus
  3. entero-endocrine cells, produce hormones
  4. Chief cells, produce pepsine (cuts protein)
  5. Paneth cells, give antibacterial lysosomes.

What is the self renewal of the intestinal wall?

In the vally of the villi or so called scripts there are new cells made of stam cells and they replace tho older cels.

What happens to water soluble nutrients?

They go to the capillaries (aderen) that transports it to the liver. It goes to blood in which oxygen is low.

What happens to fat soluble nutrients?

They are transported to the liver by portail artery which also give oxygen to the liver.

What is cole cancer?

Commen form of cancer in the colon and rectum.

What is the difference between a digestive enzyme and an intestinal hormone?

Digetive enzymes digeste.
hormones are sensors all over the digestive track that set reactions in place

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