Summary: Food Related Allergies And Intolerances (Immunological Aspects)

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  • 1 Brief introduction into immunology (Background reading)

  • 1.1 Introduction of the immune system (organs, cells and molecules)

    This is a preview. There are 46 more flashcards available for chapter 1.1
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  • What is the difference between an autoimmune disease and an allergy?

    Autoimmune disease: The immune system mistakes self for nonself and launches an attack against the body's own cells or tissues.

    Allergy: The immune system responds to a seemingly harmless foreign substance (pollen). 
  • Why are the 3 organs of the immune system called secondary lymphoid organs?

    Because they are home to lymphocytes, small white blood cells that are key players in the immune system.
  • Where is bone marrow located?

    In the soft tissue in the hollow centre of bones, it is the ultimate source of all blood cells, including white blood cells destined to become immune cells.
  • How are lymphocytes derived from bone marrow called?

    B-lymphocytes or B cells
  • What happens in the maturation process in bone marrow and thymus to B and T cells?

    They undergo a selection process in which cells (95%) reacting against self-antigens are destroyed (apoptosis) and removed and only cells against nonself are released into the blood circulation and finally ends in the secondary lymphoid organs.
  • How can lymphocytes travel throughout the body?

    Using blood vessels or through a system of lymphatic vessels that closely parallels the body's veins and arteries.
  • How does the lymphatic system monitor the body for invading microbes?

    Cells and fluids are exchanged between blood and lymphatic vessels.
  • How do immune cells and foreign particles enter the lymph nodes? And how do they exit?

    Enter: Via incoming lymphatic vessels or the lymph nodes' tiny blood vessels.

    Exit: through outgoing lymphatic vessels.
  • How do B cells work?


    They secrete substances called antibodies into the body's fluids. Antibodies ambush antigens circulating in the bloodstream. They are powerless, however, to penetrate cells. The job of attacking target cells is left to T cells or other immune cells.
  • What happens when a B cell encounters its triggering antigen?

    It gives rise to many large plasma cells. Every plasma cell is essentially a factory for producing an antibody. Each of the plasma cells descended from a given B cell manufactures millions of identical antibody molecules and pours them into the bloodstream.

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