These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'congealing', 'extrusion' and 'miscibility', originating from:

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- Wageningen University
ISBN-13 9990002019708
665 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on congealing, extrusion, miscibility

Mention 3 types of encapsulation
  1. (Spray) drying
  2. Extrusion
  3. Congealing
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What are the loadings of
  • Spray drying
  • Fluid bed drying
  • Extrusion
  • Congealing/spray chilling
  • Spray drying --> less than 40 wt%
  • Fluid bed drying --> 60-90 wt%
  • Extrusion --> 6-20 wt%
  • Congealing/spray chilling --> 10-20 wt%
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What sized particles can these give
  • Spray drying
  • Fluid bed drying
  • Drum coating
  • Extrusion
  • Congealing/spray chilling
  • Spray drying --> 1-50 um
  • Fluid bed drying --> 100 um or larger
  • Drum coating --> mm to cm
  • Extrusion --> 200 um to 2 mm
  • Congealing/spray chilling --> 20-200 um
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What are advantages and disadvantages of spray drying?
You have to take into account the miscibility, state diagram, glass transition and plasticisation effects of all the components.

The balance is dependent on the type of matrix material and the type of encapsulated active component.
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Is encapsulating volatile compounds possible?
  • Spray drying
  • Fluid bed drying
  • Drum coating
  • Extrusion
  • Congealing/spray chilling
  • Spray drying --> ?
  • Fluid bed drying --> No, exposed to air for a long time
  • Drum coating --> ?
  • Extrusion --> Yes, more suitable
  • Congealing/spray chilling --> Yes, cooling can be quite fast.
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What is an advantage of extrusion over spray drying?
One can process much more viscous pastes.
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What can be done by systems that have difficulty forming nuclei?
Pre-chilling.
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