State diagram and the glass transition - The states of foods

7 important questions on State diagram and the glass transition - The states of foods

What are the 3 steps important in the creation of structured food?

  1. Hydration and mixing
  2. Heating
  3. Cooling
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What can very fast evaporation lead to?

It can create bubbles of water vapour in the matrix, if the water cannot escape quickly enough to the surface of the product. The bubbles will create porosity.
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What happens to the food matrix when cooling?

The flexible and deformable matrix now becomes rigid.
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Why are food ingredients often employed as powders?

Powders are very stable and can easily be stored, traded and mixed.
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What is the state of powders and what happens in this state?

In the glassy state, hydration causes dissolving or taking up a lot of water and becoming deformable. It is then not in the glassy state anymore, but becomes a fluid.
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After hydration of an ingredient in the glassy state, which kind of fluids occur?

  • Thin-flowing liquid (e.g. Milk, batter)
  • Gel/paste, also called a rubber (still has consistency but is deformable
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Which 2 things can happen when drying and heating a thin-flowing liquid or rubber?

  1. After cooling, you obtain a glass
  2. After slowly cooling, you may obtain a crystalline material (with low Mw molecules such as sugars and fats)
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