Emulsions: Principles and preparation - Making emulsions using flow fields - Turbulent flow

5 important questions on Emulsions: Principles and preparation - Making emulsions using flow fields - Turbulent flow

When does turbulent flow take place?

When flow rates are high
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What is the mechanism of turbulent flow?

For larger droplets, many of the swirls and eddies are smaller than the droplets. The impinge on the droplets, deforming them, and when the deformation is sufficiently strong and lasts for sufficiently long time, the droplet will break up into smaller ones.
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How are the turbulence, the size of eddies (draaikolken) and the forces related?

  • Turbulence not too large --> eddies similar size as droplets --> viscous forces by eddies dominate
  • Turbulence very large --> eddies very small --> inertial forces of liquid impinging on the droplets dominate
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Is flow in a colloid mill turbulent/laminar and which forces (viscous/inertial) dominate?

Laminar/turbulent, dependent on viscosity of product.
W/O emulsions --> viscosity high --> viscosity dominates
O/W emulsions --> depends on droplet size
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Is flow in emulsification with ultrasound turbulent/laminar and which forces (viscous/inertial) dominate?

Inertial forces, created by the cavitation of the vapour bubbles.
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