These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'emulsions', 'membranes' and 'interfacial', originating from:

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- Wageningen University
ISBN-13 9990002019708
665 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on emulsions, membranes, interfacial

Mention 3 different ways to make emulsions
  1. Using flow fields
  2. Using membranes and microchannels
  3. Using physical destabilisation
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What is the size of the dispersed droplets in emulsions?
Less than 100 nm
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Making emulsions can be done via flow fields or membranes and micro channels. Which of the 2 has the least energy input needed?
Membranes and micro channels
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Why does creating an interface between two phases costs energy?
Because the molecules are more attracted to other alike-molecules in the bulk phase.
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What is the interfacial energy?
The amount of Gibbs energy that is needed to create 1 m2 of interfacial area.
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What are difference between emulsification based on flow fields and based on using membranes and microchannels?
Membranes and micro channels --> much milder, energy consumption is lower, droplet size dependent on shape and dimensions of the pores or micro channels.
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Mention 3 processes belonging to making emulsions using membranes and microchannels
  1. Cross-flow membrane emulsification
  2. Dead-end (premix) membrane emulsification
  3. Micro-channel emulsification
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Why are membrane or micro-channel based methods still not widely used in the food industry?
Because the throughputs are way too low.
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For what purpose can all the membrane emulsification methods be useful?
W/O/W emulsions
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What are 2 examples of using physical destabilisation to make emulsions?
  1. Phase inversion
  2. Partial coalescence of emulsion droplets
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What mechanism is used to make butter?
Partial coalescence and phase inversion.


Partial coalescence --> makes large aggregates, fat phase is large.
Phase inversion --> fat phase becomes continuous phase
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