These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'emulsions', 'membranes' and 'interfacial', originating from:

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- Wageningen University
ISBN-13 9990002019708
665 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on emulsions, membranes, interfacial

Mention 3 different ways to make emulsions
  1. Using flow fields
  2. Using membranes and microchannels
  3. Using physical destabilisation
What is the size of the dispersed droplets in emulsions?
Less than 100 nm
Making emulsions can be done via flow fields or membranes and micro channels. Which of the 2 has the least energy input needed?
Membranes and micro channels
Why does creating an interface between two phases costs energy?
Because the molecules are more attracted to other alike-molecules in the bulk phase.
What is the interfacial energy?
The amount of Gibbs energy that is needed to create 1 m2 of interfacial area.
What are difference between emulsification based on flow fields and based on using membranes and microchannels?
Membranes and micro channels --> much milder, energy consumption is lower, droplet size dependent on shape and dimensions of the pores or micro channels.
Mention 3 processes belonging to making emulsions using membranes and microchannels
  1. Cross-flow membrane emulsification
  2. Dead-end (premix) membrane emulsification
  3. Micro-channel emulsification
Why are membrane or micro-channel based methods still not widely used in the food industry?
Because the throughputs are way too low.
For what purpose can all the membrane emulsification methods be useful?
W/O/W emulsions
What are 2 examples of using physical destabilisation to make emulsions?
  1. Phase inversion
  2. Partial coalescence of emulsion droplets
What mechanism is used to make butter?
Partial coalescence and phase inversion.

Partial coalescence --> makes large aggregates, fat phase is large.
Phase inversion --> fat phase becomes continuous phase
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