Crystallization and matrix formation - Freezing and thatwing - Cryoprotection

3 important questions on Crystallization and matrix formation - Freezing and thatwing - Cryoprotection

How can you prevent ice from crystallising and instead going into the glassy state?

If you make sure that the total concentration of non-water components ('solid' concentration) is higher than Cg', then ice will never form. This is called cryoprotection.
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What kind of molecules can be cryoprotectant?

Low-molecular weight molecules. Large molecules will not be able to penetrate the matrix and hence will not replace the water.
The cryoprotectant molecule should also not crystallize itself.
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What kind of cryoprotectants are often used in food applications?

Sugars, such as glucose and fructose. They can however still crystallize and are unhealthy.
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