These are flashcards an notes made by students on topics like 'scales', 'crispy' and 'moisture', originating from:

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- Wageningen University
ISBN-13 9990002019708
665 Flashcards & Notes
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Study Cards on scales, crispy, moisture

Why is baking soda (NaHCO3) sometimes added to cookies?
The carbon dioxide makes small bubbles in the batter, while cooling down they are fixated as pores or bubbles. With bubbles the cookies are crispy and crumbly, without they would be very hard.
What is the best way to get crispy crackers?
Using a hot plate. This hot plate transfers heat so quickly, that not much moisture will escape from the surface of the cracker. The moisture inside the cracker starts to boil and form steam bubbles.
Why does the inside of a bread never become as brown as the outside?
The outside of the bread becomes brown due to Maillard reactions because of high temperatures. The inside of the bread reacts different to higher temperatures. The carbon dioxide inside the bubbles expands due to the higher temperatures, and is very slowly released to the outside. This counter-acts the conduction of heat to the inside, it will never get hotter than 80 degrees Celcius.
Bread is structured on 4 different scales. Which scales and describe what the scale includes
  • Mesoscopic (nanometer) --> bread is structured with two permeating networks.
    • Gluten network formed and stick together by chemical bonds.
    • Starch network by retrogradation (small crystallites)
  • Microscopic (micrometer) --> gluten network with starch granules and CO2 bubbles. During baking the starch granules swell. Cooling leads to crosslinks. Gluten network not important anymore.
  • Millimeter --> bubbles give spongy structure. Crumbly bread due to porosity
  • Centimeter --> crispy and brown crust, soft crumbly inside.
What is the main cause of caking powders?
Deformation of the particles when they are pushed together.
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