Summary: General Medicine

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  • Examination and diagnosis

    This is a preview. There are 6 more flashcards available for chapter 15/02/2021
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  • How does the current definition of health differ from the 1946-definition of health by the WHO?

    Acceptance that health is not static

    Definition: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1946)

    Differ: The Who definition of health as complete wellbeing is no longer fit for purpose given the rise of chronic disease. Machteld Huber and colleageus propose changing the emphasis towards the ability to adapt and self manage in the face of social, physical and emotional challenges.
  • What are the most common reasons for GP visits?

    1. Hypertension
    2. Urinary tract infections
    3. Diabetes
    4. Coughing
    5. Fatigue
    6. Acute upper airway infections
  • What does the acronym ICE stand for?

    As a doctor, you ask about the Ideas, Concerns, and
    Expectations of the patient (and share your own)

    Concerns Expectations

    Voorbeeld met jongetje met leukemie, dokter maakt zich zorgen over het process en de chemo etc maar het jongetje maakt zich zorgen over of hij nog wel kan zwemmen in de zomer en lekker naar het strand kan gaan. Door naar ICE te vragen kun je meer betekenen voor de patiënt.
  • Which 3 steps are made in the diagnostic process?

    1. History/Anamnesis - everything the patient can tell you (GP)
      1. Duration of complaints, severity, smoking habits, occupation, medication use, living situation, height and weight (best to measure these)
    2. Examination - what you can see, hear, feel, smell (GP)
      1. Inspection - kijken 
        1. is the patient pale or feverish, can you see discolouration of the skin, problems with posture, tremors
      2. Auscultation - horen
        1. heart sounds, breathing sounds, gurgling sounds
      3. Percussion - kloppen + luisteren naar de geluiden
        1. tapping the abdomen or chest
      4. Palpation - voelen en soms druk uitoefenen 
        1. feel for lumps, firmness, nodules
    3. Investigation - imaging or sampling (hospital)
      1. imaging techniques, blood sampling, urine sampling, spirometry (lung function) etc. 
  • Where do you need to think about when taking the anamnesis?

    • Duration and severity of symptoms
    • Localisation of pain, situation 
    • Family history, smoking, occupation 
    • Medication 
    • Past medical history 
  • What is the mechanics of patient history?

    • Chief complaint 
    • History of present illness
    • Past medical history 
    • Medications & allergies
    • Family history 
    • Social history 
  • 3 strategies to taking a good patient history

    1. Listen well and empathise 
      1. listen with your whole body 
      2. keep questions to a minimum 
    2. Summarize 
      1. go over data with the patient 
    3. ICE
      1. ideas
      2. concerns 
      3. expectations
  • What can be further investigations after taking a GP (usually in hospital setting)

    • Laboratory (blood, urine)
    • Tissue biopsy 
    • Imaging techniques
      • X-ray or CT-scan 
      • PET scan 
      • MRI 
    • Spirometry 
    • ECG
  • X-raysPrincipleUsed for imaging what?Resolution ( + or +/- or -)Risk (+ or -)

    • Electromagnetic radiation; dense areas or high atomic numbers show white. 2D image
    • fractures (bone), soft tissue, organs 
    • + (bone) - (soft tissue)
    • +/- (radiation)
  • CT-scanPrincipleUsed for imaging what?Resolution ( + or +/- or -)Risk (+ or -)

    • Multiple x-rays divide patient in 'coupes' --> 3D image
    • organs, bone 
    • + (bone) - (soft tissue)
    • +/- (radiation)

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