Summary: H&f

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  • College 1

    This is a preview. There are 38 more flashcards available for chapter 01/03/2015
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  • What is the history plan?

    - mechanizing of the world: science as prection and control; world as mechanism (clockwork)
    - Philosophical roots: Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Kant: consciousness, knowledge, empiricism vs rationalism
    - the rise of scientific, experimental psychology
    - psychology in Europe (psychology as human science; Gestalt)
    - psychology in America (evolution, pragmatism, functionalism)
    - behaviorism, psychoanalysis (turning away from consciousness)
  • What was the worldview and the look on knowledge and science in the Middle ages?

    World view: universe as an organism, with a function meaning
    Knowledge and science: authority, speculation, reasoning, no experiment or observation. Qualitative explanation, essence
  • What were the causes of the scientific revolution?

    - commercial: banks, trade, travel
    - demografic: urbanisation, social mobility
    - technical: printing, magnet/compass, gunpowder
  • What beholds the scientific revolution?

    -> new interest in counting and measuring: quantitative explanations, medieval qualitative explanation useless, technology, manipulation
    -> practically usefull science

    Warfare, transport: what are the laws of movement?
    Trade: arithmetic, measuring volumes?
  • Some new ideas were humanism and atomism, explain them

    1 free enquiry (onderzoek): Humanism: Freedom of enquiry, free from authority of theology and chruch, independent reasoning and observation
    2. Source of mechanistic worldview: atomism: alle properties reducible to properties of the smallest indivisible parts (=atoms)
  • World as mechanism summary

        - knowledge is power
        - experiment, manipulation, measurement
       - prediction and control
       - knowledge of causes and effects, laws
       - analysis, dissection, elemtarism, materialism

    Worldview: machine, clockwork metaphor, mechanism (not organism)
  • What are three characteristics of Bacon (1561-1626)?

    Empiricism, positivism
    - first statement of the new ideal (hard, emperical), science
    - observation is the only legitimate source of knowledge
    - normative philosophy of science (positivism): methods and prescriptions for good science (against prejudices and illusions)
  • What was the method of Bacon?

    Inductive method: no theories, no mathematics, no dedcutions, only observed facts
    Induction: from observations to generalisations, and laws

    'knowledge is power' 
    experiment: 'put nature on the rack' 
  • Which 4 characteristics beholds the new science?

    - Observation and manipulation, prediction and control
                                                   --> experiment
    - Laws of nature, in mathematical formulae
    - Materialism, elementarism (atomism)
    - Deism: no intervention by god
  • What are primary qualities?

    in things themselves

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