Summary: Health And Medical Psychology

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  • 1 Week 1, explaining health behavior

  • 1.1 The Essence of health and medical psychology

  • Where do health psychologist work?

    Health care:
    Primary health care (adults, children)
    Private practice
    Organizational health/burn-out prevention
    Secondary health care:
    - Mental health organizations
    Pain clinics and rehabilitation centers • Medical

    psychology department hospital:
    Pain management
    Oncology and hematology
    Endocrinology
    Cardiology etc.
  • 1.1.1 What is health and medical psychology?

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  • What is Lay perceptions of health (Blaxter, 1990)?

    what do people think as health: 
    -Health as not ill: no symptoms, no visits to doctor
    -Health as reserve/resources: strong family, recover quickly
    -Health as behavior: look after myself
    -Health as physical fitness and vitality: energetic
    -Health as psychological well-being: in harmony, balance, proud, enjoyment
    -Health as function: to do what I want/have to do
  • What is the WHO definition of health (1948)?

    “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”

    not had been amended since 1948, criticism is that we might never feel complete health.
  • What also predicts health (next to biomedical model)?

    • Health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, sleep, etc.)
    • Stress/emotions
    • Social relations (support, conflict)
  • What are the three forms of prevention?

    Primary prevention:
    prevention of problem, illness or casualty
    Target group = healthy people

    Secondary prevention:
    tracing illness in an early phase, for early treatment or for prevention of more serious complaints
    Target group = (healthy) people with an increased risk for disease

    Tertiary prevention:
    prevention of complications and worsening of symptoms through optimal care (including self-regulation interventions)
    Target group = ill people
  • 1.1.2 what is healthy living?

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  • What does matarazzo (1984) distincts as behaviors?

    Behavioral pathogens (health risk behaviors): smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, sharing needles, multiple sex partners, unsafe seks, drink driving, no ear protection, etc.

    Behavioral immunogens (health protective behaviors): physical activity, healthy nutrition (e.g., low in fat, sugar and salt, vegetables and fruit), sun protection, bicycle helmet, vaccinations, medication, etc.
  • 1.1.3 why encourage a healthy lifestyle?

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  • Why influence health behavior?

    1: Health behavior is related to morbidity and mortality. 
    2: socio-demographical differences in health behavior increase socio-economic differences. 
    3: The prevalence of risk behaviors is high. 
    4: health behavior is not always an informed choice.
  • What are the adverse affect of influencing

    • Intervention generated inequalities: make sure that its equally available. 
    • Hardening: don't trust them and I wont follow their rules --> think about covid
    • Stigmatizing: we want to impower people, don't want to say to blame.
  • 1.2 How can we explain/understand health behavior?

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  • What is the Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974)?

    Zie model
  • What is the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1977, 1989)?

    Zie model
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