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Summary HISTORY OF EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM - CLASS READER

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A snapshot of the summary - HISTORY OF EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM - CLASS READER

  • 1.1.1 THE ROMAN EMPIRE

  • How is a typical roman settlement called? And what are their characteristics?
    castellum. It served as an army camp.

    The castellum had a strictly geometric structure:
    rectangular with an orthogonal street pattern.
  • 1.1.2 THE 11TH CENTURY AS A TURNING POINT

  • The 11th century was a turning point in the development of the medieval city why was that?
    Trade flourishes, trading settlements develop that lay down the roots for urbanisation.

    starting from Roman centres on the one hand and from new settlements at intersections of roads and waterways on the other hand.
  • What are the characteristics of the late Medieval City?

    - Trade and crafts:  (hay market, fish market, grain market)
    - Buildings:  (place of residence as well as workplace)
    - Infrastructure: docks, wharfs, dams, ditches
    - Administration: town hall and weigh house
    - Ecclesiastical life: churches, cloisters, hospitals, (latin) schools, orphanages, poor houses, 
    - Military function: defences, powder magazine, depots, armories
  • 1.1.3 TWO APPROACHES

  • Their are two theories about the turning point in the medieval city which two?
    Henri Pirenne's theory
    Max Weber's  theory
  • 1.1.4 HENRI PIRENNE’S THEORY

  • What was Henri Perienne's theory about?

    In Pirenne’s view, the presence and the activities of this class of travelling merchants led to a new urban society. His theory is that the travelling tradesmen needed permanent places from where they could organize their journeys, both for commercial and safety reasons (during the winter months). These places had to be safe as well as being at intersections of roads and waterways.

     So, safety and geographical location were the determining factors.
  • 1.1.5 MAX WEBER’S THEORY

  • What was Henri Max Weber's theory about?
    A medieval city is only a medieval city if it has the following characteristics:

    - Means of subsistence, consisting of crafts and trade.
    - The presence of a fortress (fortification).
    - The presence of a market.
    - The existence of an own judicial system, reflecting independent legislation.
    - The presence of an alliance of (free) citizens
    - (Partial) autonomy in administrative affairs, with the administrators largely appointed by their own population.
  • 1.2.1 MORFOLOGY AND TYPOLOGY

  • There are two different types of medieval towns which one?

    1. TOWNS THAT DEVELOPED ORGANICALLY
    -  Towns of Roman origin
    - Fortified towns, built as armoured military bases, that later acquired a commercial function.
    - Towns that developed from rural villages

    2. NEWLY FOUNDED TOWNS
    -  Bastide towns, founded in France, England and Wales and
    -  other towns, founded throughout Europe, with or without full urban status, and based on a        preconceived town plan or not.

    developed town vs. planned town
  • 1.2.2 IDEAL-TYPE DEVELOPMENT OF A (MEDIEVAL) TOWN

  • How does the ideal-type development of a (medieval) town look like?
    1. At a junction of waterways and roads fortifications are built: Its morphology is determined by the local topographical elements: high spots, composition of the soil, creeks, hills, river crossings, etc. 
    2. This caused expanding of  the existing agricultural settlements and start new cultivations. also trading become to flourish around the city.
    3. In a later period they (trading entity) become one spatial entity on itself  because of a joint wall. The distinction between town and rural areas becomes sharper.
  • 1.2.3 SPATIAL COMPONENTS

  • What are the spacial components of medieval city?
    1.FORTIFICATIONS: FORTRESSES AND CASTLES
    2.THE CITY WALL 
    3.THE CIVIL TOWN: CRAFTSMAN
    4. THE MARKET: TRADING
    5. STREET PLAN: DISORDERED ARRANGEMENT
    6.  CHURCHES AND CLOISTERS
    7. RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: FUNCTIONS WHERE NOT SEPARATED
    8. CLOSED OFF BUILDING BLOCKS
  • 1.2.4 THE IMAGE OF THE MEDIEVAL TOWN

  • What is the general image of a medieval town?
    -street pattern is irregular
    -the arrangement of the building blocks result in closed of city
    -the city has a fine-grained 
    -different functions are situated next to each other
    - have a high density
    -are highly complex
    - have a permanent state of incompleteness
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