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A snapshot of the summary - History of Modern Philosophy
Goal of Descartes meditationsDescartes' goal, as stated at the beginning of the meditation, is to suspend judgment about any belief that is even slightly doubtful. The skeptical scenarios show that all of the beliefs he considers in the first meditation—including, at the very least, all his beliefs about the physical world, are doubtful.
What is Descartes argument in the first meditation?His purpose is to create the greatest possible doubt of our senses. To convey this thought, Descartes has three main arguments in the First Meditation:
- The dream argument
- The deceiving God argument
- The evil demon “or evil genius”.
Dilemma (doubting God)1. But when there is no god, then I am wrong about every concept (I was so sure about God, so everything else must be also wrong)
2. Or God is making my concepts wrong, and I am wrong about everything
Causal adequacy principleThe causal adequacy principle (CAP), or causal reality principle, is a philosophical claim made by René Descartes that the cause of an object must contain at least as much reality as the object itself, whether formally or eminently.
A substance has to be fundamental1. Not devisable (otherwise it is a contradiction)
2. Substance can only be one kind (body and mind can overlap because it's from the same substance)
3. Self-caused: exists due to necessity of its own nature
4. Infinite and eternal: not limited by something else
Locke's answer to the question of where ideas come fromAll ideas come ultimately from experience. Idea formation involves more than just observation, but every idea anyone has ever had that can ultimately be shown to be founded entirely in experience.
What is it mean to say that a particular idea is a "compound of simple ideas?"It is a combination of one or more simple ideas. For instance, "blue triangle" is the combination of the simple ideas of the "blueness" and "triangularity."
Prove why ideas comes from experiencesThe body (brain) and soul are apart.
Maybe we are thinking in our sleep, but we don't remember it (body and mind apart)
Prove: when we are awake, the body helps to keep thoughts in mind.
What can('t) ideas1) an idea can't cause a new idea
- an idea can only resemble another idea
2) you can't chasing a new idea
- we only conceive the ball is moving, we are not causing the ball moving.
3) an active thing can causing
- God is active, so God can cause new ideas
Can we conceive the concept of mind?No, but we know that the mind exist because we perceive the effects of minds (movements, action, what we do)
Mind exist because we conceive the effects of it.