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Summary HUBS191

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  • 1 HUBS191

  • 1.1 Lecture One : Introduction to HUBS

  • What is the organization of the Human Body from smallest to largest ?
    1. Atoms and molecules
    2. Organelle
    3. Cell
    4. Tissue
    5. Organ
    6. Organ System
    7. Organism
  • What is the Human Tissue Act (2008) ?
    Allows people to donate their bodies to science. There are 5 main points :
    1. Voluntary donated.
    2. Requires a dual signed consent from both the donor and an immediate family member.
    3. Most bodies are held for 18months. However, body parts can be kept for longer periods for teaching and research.
    4. Must avoid unnecessary mutilation - show respect to the body.
    5. Bodies come from bequests; not condemned by criminals and unclaimed bodies.
  • What is the structure and function of an Epithelial tissue ?
    FUNCTIONS :
    • Provides physical protection.
    • Control permeability.
    • Provide sensation.
    • Produce specialized sections.
    EXAMPLES :  Skin, linings of digestive tract and respiratory tract.
  • What is the structure and function of a Connective Tissue ?
    FUNCTIONS :
    • Establish a structural framework for the body.
    • Transport fluids and dissolved materials.
    • Protect delicate organs.
    • Support, surround and interconnect other types of tissues.
    • Store energy.
    • Defend the body from invading microorganisms.
    EXAMPLES : Blood vessels, lymph , bones, tendons and ligaments.
  • What is the structure and function of a Skeletal muscle ? 
    • It is voluntary control , striated and has many nuclei's.
    • Its function is for movement of bones.
    • Examples are skeletal muscles attached to the bone limbs.
  • What is the structure and function of a Cardiac muscle ?
    • It is involuntary control, striated and has only 1-2 nuclei's.
    • Its function is to initiate the heart beating so that it can pump blood throughout the human body.
    • Example is the heart.
  • What is the structure and function of a Smooth Muscle ?
    • It is involuntary control, not striated and has only 1 nuclei.
    • Its function is for movement of materials within the Human Body.
    • Examples are Blood vessels and digestive tract.
  • What is the structure and function of the Nervous tissue ?
    FUNCTIONS :
    • Maintain physical structure of the nervous tissue.
    • Repair nervous tissue framework after injury.
    • Perform phagocytosis.
    • Provides nutrients to neurons.
    • Regulate composition of interstitial fluid surrounding neurons.
    EXAMPLES : Neurons, sensory organs, brain and spinal cord. 
  • 1.2 Lecture Three : Bone I - Structure of the skeleton

  • Explain what is meant by the 'Anatomical Position' of the Human Body and Why it is important ?
    It means that the body must be ….
    • Upright
    • Face facing forward
    • Feet together
    • Palms facing forwards
    • Remains the same regardless of movement 

    Why is it important ?
    • It is important in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomical nomenclature.
  • What are the three body planes of the body and the movements that occurs at these planes ?
    1. Sagittal plane : 
    • Divides the body into left and right.
    • Movements are Back and forward (Flexion and Extension).

    2. Coronal plane :
    • Divides the body into front and back sections.
    • Movements are side to side (Adduction and Abduction).

    3. Transverse plane : 
    • Divides the body into top and bottom sections.
    • Movements are rotating movements (rotation and circumduction).
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